RSS

ASEAN

Kerjasama ASEAN dan Jepang: Sebuah Kajian Transfer Teknologi yang Komprehensif untuk Pengembangan Ekonomi Produksi Kawasan di Masa Depan

oleh : Amelia DayDesember 2006
Daftar isi:

ABSTRAKSI
1. Pembukaan
2. Tren politik di setiap negara
3. Tren ekonomi dan ASEAN Economic Community
4. KRITISI ATAS KERJASAMA ASEAN DAN JEPANG: Sebuah Kajian Transfer Teknologi
5. REKOMENDASI: TRANSFER TEKNOLOGI DALAM PROSES PRODUKSI UNTUK MASA DEPAN ASEAN (SEBUAH PROSES INSIDE-OUTSIDE DAN OUTSIDE-INSIDE)
a. Inside-outside process of tech transfer
b. Outside-inside process of tech transfer
6. Penutup
7. Bibliografi
8. Lampiran
a. Japan’s export to ASEAN and China by commodity (2005)
b. Japan’s import from ASEAN and China by commodity (2005)
c. Discussion document: Technology transfer and national innovation (IIPI, University of Campinas, Sao Paolo, Brasil, 2004)
d. Technology Transfer and Commercialization (US Department of Commerce 2003 Report) – executive summary
e. Trends in Japanese Textile Technology (US Department of Commerce 1996 Report)

Abstraksi

ASEAN adalah perkumpulan negara-negara sedang berkembang yang mempunyai peran penting dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi di Asia-Pasifik. Stabilitas politik dan pertumbuhan ekonomi di negara-negara ASEAN beberapa tahun terakhir bisa membuktikan kekuatan ekonomi di masa depan.

Sayangnya, ASEAN hanya menjadi satu pasar besar yang belum belajar dari kesalahan masa lalu: tiadanya tranfer teknologi dari negara-negara maju di dunia. Pasca-Restorasi Meiji, Jepang adalah negara yang mengadopsi teknologi yang berkembang di Eropa. Percepatan adopsi teknologi di negara ini kemudian terlaksana setelah Perang Dunia Pertama. Perang Dunia Pertama juga mendorong Korea Selatan mengadopsi teknologi yang dikembangkan Jepang. Dalam tempo tiga puluh tahun terakhir ini, Cina juga mampu mangadopsi teknologi di segala lini dengan cepat. Motor Cina (mocin) sebagai satu contohnya.

Untuk itu, kerjasama ASEAN dengan India, Cina, Jepang, Korsel, Australia dan Selandia Baru dalam East Asia Summit, ataupun kerjasama ASEAN dengan 3 negara (ASEAN+3: Jepang, Korsel, dan Cina) harus menjadi satu ajang yang lebih dari sekadar proses perdagangan barang dan jasa. Seharusnya juga negara-negara tersebut di atas membantu ASEAN dalam proses transfer teknologi di semua sektor yang diperdagangkan. Di samping itu, kesiapan institusi ASEAN untuk memberikan insentif bagi warga negaranya juga harus diperjuangkan secara paralel.

Kerjasama ASEAN dan Jepang:
Sebuah Kajian Transfer Teknologi yang Komprehensif untuk Pengembangan Ekonomi Produksi Kawasan di Masa Depan

1. PEMBUKAAN

Jepang, Korea Selatan, dan Cina adalah tiga negara di Asia Pasifik yang hari ini menjadi barometer perkembangan ekonomi dunia. Pasca-restorasi Meiji, Jepang berkembang pesat mengadopsi teknologi yang terlebih dahulu dikembangkan di Eropa. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Korea Selatan juga bangkit mengembangkan teknologinya: mobil hingga barang elektronik dan perangkat telepon seluler menjadi andalan negara ini. Cina negara berpenduduk terbesar di dunia kemudian juga lebih cepat lagi mengadopsi inovasi negara-negara yang telah terlebih dahulu berinovasi. Kurang dari 30 tahun, Cina kini siap industri otomotif tak kalah canggih.

Dari daftar negara-negara anggota ASEAN-6 (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapura, Filipina, Thailand, dan Brunei), hanya Malaysia yang membangun ibukota baru yang hi-tech (Cyberjaya untuk komersial, dan Puterajaya untuk pemerintahan). Singapura juga memposisikan dirinya sebagai hub atau pintu gerbang industri berteknologi tinggi yang menghubungkan titik-titik perkembangan dunia seperti India, Cina, Jepang, dan Australia. Thailand juga maju dengan perkembangan teknologi di sektor agrikultur. Melihat progres perkembangan teknologi dalam negerinya, Indonesia, Filipina dan Brunei mungkin termasuk sejajar dengan negara ASEAN-4 (Myanmar, Laos, Kamboja dan Viet Nam). Walau sesungguhnya perkembangan di Viet Nam beberapa tahun terakhir ini juga cukup mencengangkan.

Faktor “T” dalam proses produksi di Indonesia dan beberapa negara anggota ASEAN ini memang terhitung rendah. Keunggulan komparatif produk-produk dari negara-negara ini masih jauh di bawah produk Cina atau Jepang. Bahkan, Thailand yang mampu mengembangkan inovasi-inovasi pertaniannya mampu menciptakan buah-buahan yang memasok banyak negara.

Perdagangan lintas-negara anggota ASEAN memang tidak besar bahkan cenderung tersendat. Salah satu alasannya adalah bahwa di antara negara anggota ASEAN adalah produsen barang yang sama, atau pengguna bahan yang sama. Alasan lain yang juga tak kalah pentingnya adalah pengembangan serta transfer pengetahuan/teknologi antar-negara anggota ASEAN tidak terlalu signifikan. Kalaupun ada, terkesan seakan ada keengganan para negara anggota untuk saling berbagi pengetahuan.

Daftar Produk Ekspor/Impor ASEAN dan GPD 2004

Brunei Darussalam
Major Industry: Oil and gas, textiles, food and beverages, building materials
Major Export: Oil and gas, ready-made garments
Transport equipment and machinery, manufactured goods, food chemimals
GDP: US$ 5,4626.6 million

Cambodia
Major Industry: Textiles and Garments, Beverages, Food, Wood Processing
Major Export: Garments, Textile Product Sawn, Wood Furniture, Rubber
Major Import: Transport equipment and machinery, manufactured goods, food chemical
GDP: US$ 4,215 million

Indonesia
Major Industry: Pulp and paper, cement, basic metals and fertilizer, power generation, telecommunication, transportation
Major Export: Textile, electronic goods, footwear, oil & gas, plywood, sawn timber
Major Import: Chemical and pharmaceutical, fertilizer, cotton yarns, textile fabric, machines, motor vehicles
GDP: US$ 208,625 million

Lao PDR
Major Industry: Garment industry, wood-based and processing industries, electricity
Major Export: Coffee, electricity, clothing, wood and forest product and Gypsum
Major Import: Industrial machinery, chemicals, iron, electrical machinery and parts, oil, construction material and consumption goods
GDP: US$ 12,043 thousands

Malaysia
Major Industry: Electronic & electrical goods, textiles, clothing & footwear, chemicals and metal products and rubber
Major Export: Electronic & electric machinery, petroleum & LNG, textiles, clothes, oil, sawn timber
Major Import: Manufacturing inputs, machinery & transport equipment
GDP: US$ 103,737 million

Myanmar
Major Industry:Agro-based industries, textiles industries, steel mills
Major Export: Rice, teak, beans & pulses, rubber, coffee, minerals, gems marine products
Major Import: Power tillers, hand tractor, fertilizer, diesel oil, cement, dumper, loader, spare parts, water pumps, hydraulic excavator
GDP: US$ 9,605 million

Singapore
Major Industry: Electronics, chemicals, banking and finance, real estate, tourism
Major Export: Petroleum products, industrial machines, radio & television receivers, electronic component & parts, clothing, beverages & tobacco
Major Import: Crude petroleum, iron & steel, industrial machines, electric generators, electronic component and parts
GDP: US$106,818 million

Thailand
Major Industry: Electronics, gems/jewelry, footwear, textiles, clothing
Major Export: Textiles, computer & components, integrated circuits and parts, gems and jewelry, footwear
Major Import: Industrial machinery, iron & steel electrical machinery & parts, chassis body
GDP: US$ 143,303 million

The Philippines
Major Industry:
Priority sectors: construction materials, electronics, food, giftware and holiday decor, home furnishings, IT & IT-enabled services, marine products, motor vehicle parts and components, organic and natural products, wearables
Major Export: Electronic products; garments; ignition wiring set and other wiring set in vehicles, aircrafts, and ships; coconut oil; woodcrafts and furniture; products manufactured from materials imported on consignment basis petroleum products; metal components; cathodes and sections of cathodes of refined copper; fresh bananas
Major Import: Electronic products; mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials; industrial machinery and equipment; transport equipment; iron and steel, cereal and cereal preparations; textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles, and related products; telecommunications equipment and electrical machines, plastics in primary and nonprimary forms; organic and inorganic chemicals
GDP: US$86,123 million (2004) at current market prices

Viet Nam
Major Industry: Agriculture, forestry, fishery, industrial construction
Major Export: Crude oil, coal, chromium, tin, cements, woolen carpet, jute carpet, rich cinnamon, marine products
Major Import: Motors, petroleum products, diesel oil, fertilizers
GDP: US$ 39,021 million
Data diambil dari http://www.ASEANSEC.org

2. Tren politik di setiap negara

Tahun 2006 ini, Thailand mengalami fase khusus: kudeta damai pasukan militer Thailand terhadap Perdana Menteri Thaksin Sinawatra. Selain itu, masalah selatan masyarakat Islam di selatan Thailand yang terus menjadi satu masalah lain.
Negara anggota ASEAN lain juga terus mencari format demokrasi yang terbaik bagi negara dan bangsanya. Menjalani perubahan demokrasi terstruktur, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, dan Abdullah Badawi juga Lee Hsien Loong tetap harus menghadapi masalah terorisme. Salah satu upaya untuk menyelesaikan masalah bersama, yaitu counter-terrorism efforts, tiga negara Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapura menyelenggarakan patroli bersama di Selat Malaka. Hal ini juga untuk memberantas pembajak laut yang meresahkan pengguna jalur laut di sana.[1]

Selain itu, ada beberapa catatan khusus selama setahun terakhir:
– Myanmar: Aung San Suu Kyi dan reformasi politik,
– Brunei Darussalam: Sultan Bolkiah dan “kehadiran” Badan Legislatif yang vakum semenjak 1962,
– Kamboja: pengesahan pemimpin baru, Raja Norodom Sihamoni yang masih muda dan kontroversi dia sebagai mantan penari balet

Kerjasama counter-terrorism ini juga didukung oleh Amerika Serikat, Australia, Cina, Jepang, dan India. Tim Huxley (2005) menyatakan bahwa di bawah permukaan kerjasama keamanan ini adalah “keamanan suplai minyak” dari negara-negara di ASEAN. Untuk itu, kerjasama keamanan antara negara-negara ASEAN dan beberapa negara lain tersebut di atas kemudian meningkat menjadi kerjasama ekonomi di berbagai sektor.

3. Tren ekonomi DAN ASEAN Economic Community

Pasca-krisis 1998, negara-negara ASEAN berbenah diri di bidang politik. Di bidang ekonomi, tidak semua negara anggota cepat mengadopsi perubahan. Indonesia dan Filipina adalah dua di antara yang berjalan lamban dibanding Viet Nam, Malaysia, dan Singapura.

Membaiknya situasi politik dan ekonomi di negara-negara anggota ASEAN menjadi penentu utama dalam proses integrasi ekonomi ASEAN (yang akan diwujukan dalam ASEAN Charter 2020 dan diajukan menjadi 2015). Sesungguhnya tujuan dari ASEAN Economic Community (salah satu pilar ASEAN Charter 2020) adalah “common market minus”, yang disampaikan oleh Laporan ASEAN-ISIS 2003 “Towards an ASEAN Economic Community”.
Jika ASEAN-ISIS mengusung istilah “common market minus”, Kajian ISEAS 2003 tentang “Concept Paper on the ASEAN Economic Community” mengajukan konsep “FTA-plus”[2]:

However, as it stands, ASEAN governments are not even prepared to create a customs union let alone a European-style common market… Given the different degrees of opennes and stages of economic development among ASEAN countries, forming a customs union would be extremely difficult to achieve by the given deadline… [it] would be more realistic to envisage the end-goal of the AEC as an “FTA-plus” arrangement that covers a zero-tariff ASEAN free trade area and some elements of a common market. An “FTA-plus” AEC by 2020 would have the following characteristics:

* Free movement of goods, services, investments, and capital. This would include achieving a zero-tariff free trade area and the elimination of all non-tariff barriers;
* An attractive regional production platform that would be a magnet for FDI;
* Free movement of skilled labour and creative talent;
* Free movement of tourists from all ASEAN countries;
* Harmonization of customs procedures and minimization of customs requirements;
* Harmonization of standards that are consistent with international standards, and;
* A well-developed innstitutional and legal infrastructure to facilitate the economic integration of ASEAN.

Menggarisbawahi “different degrees of opennes and stages of economic development”, saya juga melihat bahwa fondasi hukum dan politik setiap negara yang terlampau beragam. Untuk itu, diperlukan sebuah alternatif kerjasama ASEAN yang lebih feasible. Hubungan ASEAN dan negara-negara lain di Asia-Pasifik seperti Korea Selatan, India, Cina, Jepang, Australia dan Selandia Baru bisa jadi sebuah alternatif yang menguatkan perdagangan internasional ASEAN tanpa harus “membabat” struktur hukum dan politik setiap negara anggota.

Kerjasama ASEAN+3 atau negara-negara ASEAN dan Cina, Jepang, Korea Selatan kemudian menjadi keharusan. Hal ini mengingat bahwa beberapa tahun terakhir pertumbuhan ekonomi ketiga negara tersebut terakhir naik pesat.

Beberapa tahun ini, investasi Jepang dan Korsel di Cina meroket, Cina menjadi trading partner terbesar bagi Jepang, dan Korsel menjadi eksportir besar dunia. Jika tidak sigap, ASEAN akan berada di titik kritis perekonomian dunia, atau setidaknya di kawasan Asia-Pasifik.

Konsep ASEAN+3 berasal dari proposal Mahathir Mohamad “East Asia Economic Group” di saat kunjungan pemimpin Cina Li Peng akhir tahun1990 ke Malaysia. Baru pada tahun 1997, Malaysia sebagai konseptor ini dan tuan rumah informal pertemuan ASEAN+3 mempertemukan pemimpin Jepang, Korsel dan Cina dengan petinggi negara anggota ASEAN.

Pertemuan terakhir di Malaysia tahun 2005 adalah meningkatkan ASEAN+3 kemudian ditingkatkan menjadi pertemuan tingkat tinggi East Asia Summit yang juga mengikutsertakan Australia, Selandia Baru, dan India.

Secara bertahap, negara-negara ini mendalami kerjasama Asia Timur. Di tahun 1998, Presiden Korea Kim Dae Jung mengusulkan pembentukan East Asia Vision Group untuk mengkaji “concrete ways to nurture East Asia into a single community of cooperation, serving as the basis for the countries of the region to start the discussion on the related issues in earnest.”[3]

Perkembangan politis dalam kerangka peningkatan dan pertumbuhan ekonomi negara-negara anggota ASEAN harus disikapi lebih kritis lagi. Salah satu kasus yang akan saya ambil sebagai contoh awal kritisi kerjasama ini adalah melihat kerjasama ASEAN dan Jepang secara khusus.

4. KRITISI ATAS KERJASAMA ASEAN DAN JEPANG: Sebuah Kajian Transfer Teknologi

Saya akan memfokuskan pada kerjasama ASEAN-Jepang. Beberapa alasannya adalah:

* Jepang merupakan negara pengadopsi teknologi Eropa paling awal di Asia-Pasifik.
* Jepang merupakan negara pertama yang mempunyai standar transfer teknologi universitas dan dunia industrinya.
* Informasi yang tersedia tentang transaksi perdagangan Jepang-ASEAN terbuka untuk publik, melalui situs http://www.ASEAN.or.jp.

Kritisi atas kerjasama ASEAN dan Jepang ini tidak harus sebatas statistik inflows dan outflows dari setiap negara anggota ASEAN. Transfer teknologi-satu frasa yang telah diterapkan di negara Eropa dan Amerika semenjak 1995-harus ditemukenali dalam diplomasi kerjasama kedua pihak. Syarat “perkembangan teknologi” mutlak menjadi faktor pembangunan sebuah kawasan ASEAN yang bisa berkembang secara berkelanjutan di tengah kompetisi global yang kian tajam. Be hi-tech, or be left behind.

Namun, melihat sifat umum orang Jepang yang “pelit berbagi ilmu dan teknologi”, saya pesimis kerjasama ASEAN-Jepang ini akan berbuah menjadi pertumbuhan ekonomi yang berkelanjutan bagi negara anggota ASEAN. Jepang hanya melihat ASEAN sebagai sumber dari migas, pasar ekspor, relokasi industri manufaktur.

Sumber daya alam dan manusia yang melimpah akan habis dikuras oleh industrialis seperti Jepang, namun pertumbuhan ekonomi yang diraih negara-negara ASEAN mungkin tidak akan meningkat secara signifikan.
Sebagian besar negara anggota ASEAN seakan melupakan faktor “T” atau teknologi dalam segenap proses produksi di dalam negerinya. Oleh karenanya, produk-produk dari negara ASEAN belum bisa berkompetisi dengan produk berkualitas yang dihasilkan Jepang, misalnya produk elektronik dan tekstil.

Produk tekstil Jepang, misalnya, bahkan dikaji secara khusus oleh negara adidaya Amerika Serikat. Tahun 1996 Pemerintah Amerika Serikat menegaskan:
[report of] Trends in Japanese Textile Technology shows that the emergence of a worldclass textile technology in Japan resulted from close cooperation among all segments of the industry, including producers of fibers and yarns, fabrics, apparel, and processing equipment. All the producers are driven by a relentless attention to product quality. Japan is working hard to maintain its technical leadership by increasing the pace of process innovation and expanding longer-range fundamental research in both materials and manufacturing.[4]

Proses produksi dengan menekankan pada efisiensi dan efektivitas ditunjang dari berbagai penjuru:

Practically every facet of the industry is covered from technological advances in fiber and yarn manufacturing, fabric making, apparel design and production, and the development of related equipment to the economics of offshore production and the role of government.[5]

Penekanan pada inovasi teknologi ini juga ditegaskan oleh ilmuwan Jepang yang meneliti tentang produksi dan pasar ASEAN. Ushiyama (2005) meneliti keunggulan kompetitif dari produk tekstil dan aparel Cina dan Jepang dibanding dengan produk tekstil/aparel ASEAN.

The quotas [of Multilateral Fiber Agreement], however, are to be eliminated entirely by January 1, 2005 according to the rules established by World Trade Organization (WTO). With this, trade in textiles and apparels will be completely liberalized, and China and India is likely to further increase their presence in the US and European markets, which combinedly account for some 40 percent of world textile product imports, as the two countries have higher overall competitiveness including manufacturing cost, scale and product quality than other exporters. There is even a forecast for an increase in US import market share of China to 50 percent, compared with 16 percent in 2002.[6]

Tekstil dan produk-produk unggulan lain dari Cina dan Jepang memang telah masuk ke Indonesia dan negara-negara ASEAN tanpa kecuali.

Sedangkan ekspor Jepang ke ASEAN adalah ekspor produk-produk hi-tech (lihat lampiran), seperti:

1. Machinery other than electric – power generating machinery – computer and units – parts of computer – metalworking machinery – pumps and centrifuges – construction and mining machinery – mechanical handling equipment – heating and cooling equipment – textile machines;

2. Electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances – thermionic, valves, tubes, semiconductor devices, IC, etc. – visual apparatus (VCR, TV broadcast receivers) – audio apparatus – parts of audio and visual apparatus – electric power machinery – telecommunication apparatus – electrical measuring and controlling instruments – batteries and accumulators;

3. Transport equipment – road motor vehicles excl. cycles, – passenger motor cars, – buses, trucks and special purpose lorries, – parts of road motor, vehicles.

4. Others – scientific, medical, optical instruments – photographic and cinematographic supplies – blank/recorded media

Selain keempat kategori besar di atas, ada empat kategori lain yaitu food stuff, raw materials, mineral fuels, chemicals manufactured goods classified. Hanya saja, produk-produk hi-tech dari Jepang ke ASEAN ini menempati porsi besar: 72,4%!

Produk-produk yang diekspor oleh ASEAN ke Jepang atau negara lain akan kalah bersaing mengingat kualitas yang kian tertinggal, seperti yang ditegaskan oleh Ushiyama. Selain hambatan perdagangan yang diciptakan WTO (MFA atau Multilateral Fiber Agreement) yang memberi kuota terhadap tekstil dari negara-negara berkembang ke Eropa dan Amerika, pasar yang kian sempit ini akhirnya harus memberi jalan ke tekstil Cina yang lebih murah atau tekstil Jepang yang lebih berkualitas. Satu contoh yang mengalami kerugian dari keadaan ini adalah Kamboja. Ekspor aparel (baju dan celana) dari Kamboja adalah sebesar 80% dari total nilai ekspornya[7].

Hantaman terhadap Kamboja ini, sebagai contoh, bisa dipertimbangkan untuk pencarian/pencapaian solusi negara anggota ASEAN secara keseluruhan dalam pertemuan East Asia Summit yang akan datang.

Saya merekomendasikan juga, bahwa sesungguhnya ada solusi lebih konkret yang harus menjadi pertimbangan institusional ASEAN secara internal. Negara-negara ASEAN yang belum mempertimbangkan faktor “T” secara serius dalam proses produksinya wajib menekankan hal ini ke dalam negeri masing-masing (inside-outside process).

Kemudian saya juga mengusulkan negosiasi dengan negara-negara non-anggota ASEAN yang terkait dalam East Asian Summit nanti untuk dapat membantu proses transfer teknologi ke ASEAN.

5. REKOMENDASI: Transfer teknologi dalam Proses Produksi untuk Masa Depan ASEAN (sebuah proses inside-outside dan outside-inside)

Ada dua hal yang bisa dikaji. Proses inside-outside serta outside-inside. Penguatan institusi ASEAN dengan perangkat transfer teknologi antar-negara anggota adalah proses inside-outside. Sedangkan, kerjasama East Asia Summit harus menjadi satu ajang untuk mempertimbangkan proses outside-inside (dari negara maju untuk ASEAN) agar kerjasama antar-pihak ini adalah kerjasama mutualisma dan berkelanjutan.

a. Inside-outside process of tech transfer
Telah lama negara-negara Eropa dan Amerika Serikat merintis proses transfer teknologinya secara internal. Transfer teknologi yang dimaksud adalah proses riset teknologi segala sektor di universitas, yang bisa dipakai langsung untuk pengembangan dunia industri mereka. Khususnya Amerika Serikat, universitas sebagai pusat riset teknologi adalah keharusan setiap negara bagian.
Semenjak tahun 1995, mekanisme donor/fund dan insentif untuk universitas telah menjadi aturan hukum federal di sana. Board of Regents Policy dari Universitas Minnesota telah menetapkan paket insentif terhadap peneliti di sana.

Paket insentif ini diambil dari pemasukan dari intelellectual property yang dibayarkan oleh industri yang menggunakan penemuan atau inovasi milik universitas tersebut. Perhitungannya adalah[8]:
– 33,3% untuk kreator
– 33,3% untuk Office of the Vice President of Research untuk mendukung riset yang lain
– 8% untuk administrasi sekolah tempat riset dilakukan, dan
– 25,3% untuk administrasi fakultas atau pusat kajian tempat riset dilakukan.

b. Outside-inside process of tech transfer
Jepang dengan ketergantungan pasokan minyak, gas, dan kandungan mineral lain yang cukup tinggi terhadap negara ASEAN harus bisa memahami kerjasama mutualisma ini. Sebaliknya, ASEAN juga harus bisa memposisikan diri sama tinggi dengan Jepang, atau negara lain yang tergabung dalam East Asia Summit ini. Untuk itu, diplomasi ASEAN adalah menjamin adanya transfer teknologi. Kekuatan hukum “transfer teknologi” menjadi penting, karena Pemerintah Cina dipermasalahkan oleh industri elektronik di Eropa karena copycat standar digital DVB (digital video broadcasting) tanpa membayar royalti atas paten[9] DVB.

6. PENUTUP: Insentif terhadap Transfer Teknologi

Di saat perusahaan melakukan “merging, acquiring, leaving, dying, entering, growing, downsizing, outsourcing, and spinning off”, transfer teknologi menjadi satu obat mujarab.

ASEAN memang belajar dari kesalahan kerjasama perdagangan yang ada di dunia. Di lain pihak, proses pembelajaran atas produksi yang lebih efisien dan efektif di tengah persaingan global ini, menjadi keharusan pembenahan institusi. Payung hukum dan paket insentif yang jelas untuk pengembangan teknologi dan transfer teknologi di internal ASEAN harus segera dituntaskan.

Ada satu contoh konkret insentif atas riset yang berguna langsung terhadap industri: seorang peneliti warga negara Indonesia mengajar dan melakukan riset di Universitas Chiba, tempatnya menyelesaikan program S2 hingga S3.

Sayangnya, temuan Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo PhD, sang peneliti ini, yang berupa antena satelit ringan dan tembus pandang, telah dipatenkan atas nama almamaternya:

Antena ini bisa dipasang pada setiap laptop sehingga langsung bisa berkomunikasi dengan satelit atau diselipkan di balik atap mobil sehingga ke manapun mobil itu pergi, ia akan bisa berkomunikasi. Tiada lagi blank spot. “Sebuah produsen mobil di Jepang sudah membayar hak paten untuk memproduksi antena itu sebagai perangkat komunikasi standar di setiap mobil buatannya.” (Kompas, 2 Januari 2007, halaman 16)

Artinya kemudian, penemuan Josaphat tidak menjadi milik negeri kelahiran peneliti ini, yaitu Indonesia. Sistem insentif yang tidak jelas, atau penghargaan/perlindungan terhadap intellectual property yang dihasilkan oleh peneliti seperti Josaphat ini yang juga belum jelas di negeri kelahirannya menjadi satu kendala pengembangan teknologi di Indonesia.

Untuk langkah-langkah pembelajaran selanjutnya di Indonesia atau negara-negara anggota ASEAN sebagai developing countries, harus dikembangkan faktor “T” dalam proses produksi segala lini, horizontal ataupun vertikal. Teknologi dan pengembangannya-untuk langsung digunakan dan dikembangkan oleh industri dalam negeri-harus segera menjadi paket kebijakan khusus, baik dalam institusi ASEAN itu sendiri, ataupun dalam pertimbangan kontrak kerjasama ASEAN+3 hingga kerjasama East Asian Summit di masa mendatang.

7. Bibliografi

a. Buku

  • Aaron Chaze. India: An investor’s Guide to The Next Economic Superpower. John Wiley & Sons. Singapore, 2006.
  • Denis Hew (ed.). Roadmap to an ASEAN Economic Community. Institute of Southeast Studies (ISEAS) Publication. Singapore, 2005.
  • John E. Berkowitch. Trends in Japanese Textile Technology. Laporan untuk U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Technology Policy, Asia-Pacific Technology Program. Washington DC, 1996.
  • K. Kesavapany, Chin Kin Wah, Daljit Singh, dan Dayaneetha De Silva (ed.). Southeast Asian Affairs 2005. Institute of Southeast Studies (ISEAS) Publication. Singapore, 2005.
  • Rudolfo C. Severino. Southeast Asia in Search of An ASEAN Community. Institute of Southeast Studies (ISEAS) Publication. Singapore, 2006.
  • Ryuichi Ushiyama. Textile Trade Liberalization: Concerns about Widening Gaps among ASEAN Nations. Japan Center for Economic Research. Kyoto, 2005.
  • Samuel Bassey Okposin, Abdul Halim Abdul Hamid, dan Ong Hway Boon. The Changing Phases of Malaysian Economy. Pelanduk Publications Sd Bhd. Selangor Darul Ehsan, 2005.
  • Saw Swee-Hock dan K. Kesavapany. Singapore-Malaysia Relations. Institute of Southeast Studies (ISEAS) Publication. Singapore, 2006.

b. Situs dan media cetak

Footnote

[1] Tim Huxley, Southeast Asia in 2004, Stable but Facinf Major Security Challenges, ISEAS, Singapore, 2005:3.
[2] Denis Hew, Southeast Asian Economies: Towards Recovery and Deeper Integration, Southeast Asian Affairs 2005, ISEAS, Singapore, 2005:57.
[3] Rodolfo C. Severino, Southeast Asia in Search of An ASEAN Community, ISEAS, Singapore, 2006:267.
[4] John E. Berkowitch, Trends in Japanese Textile Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Technology Polic, Asia-Pacific Technology Program, 1996:5.
[5] Ibid, halaman 7.
[6] Ryuichi Ushiyama, Textile Trade Liberalization: Concerns about Widening Gaps among ASEAN Nations
Japan Center for Economic Research, 2005:1.
[7] Ibid,, halaman 7.
[8] http://www.umn.edu
[9] http://www.abu.org.my, posting tertanggal 12 Desember 2006

Data per January 4, 2007

ASEAN Broadcasting Landscape

Brunei

Negara Brunei Darussalam

Head of State: His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Type of Government: Monarchy
Land area: 5,765 sq.km
Population: 357,800 (2004)
Language: Malay, English
Religion: Islam
Currency: B$ (Bruneian Dollar).
(on par with the Singapore dollar)
US$ exchange rate On 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = B$ 1.69
GDP: US$ 5,4626.6 million (2004) at current market prices
Major Industries: Oil and gas, textiles, food and beverages, building materials
Major Exports: Oil and gas, ready-made garments
Major Imports: Transport equipment and machinery, manufactured goods, food chemimals

Brunei is divided into four districts, called Daerah:
– Belait
– Brunei and Muara
– Temburong
– Tutong

A sub-division of a district, province, is called Mukim.

Brunei consists of two unconnected parts; 97% of the population lives in the larger western part, only about 10,000 live in the mountainous eastern part, the district of Temburong. Major towns are the capital Bandar Seri Begawan (about 46,000 inhabitants), the port town Muara and the oil producing districts of Seria and Kuala Belait.

TELEVISION in Brunei

TV adspend: no data

Total TV households: 216,223 (2000)

Total Radios: 362,712 (2000)

Free-TV penetration: no data

Satellite TV: no data

TV channels: 2

Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license: Radio Television Brunei (RTB) 1 and 2

Local license: no data

Total cable channels: no data

Cable operators: National (or network) license: no data

Local license: no data

DTH operators: no data

Satellite operators: none

Regulatory Agencies:
1. Ministry of Communications
2. The Telecommunications Regulating Authority

Laws, Regulations: Law of Brunei Chapter 180 Broadcasting (Revised Edition 31 October 2000)

Special remarks: none specific

CAMBODIA

Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea

Head of State: His Majesty King Norodom Sihamoni
Head of Government: Prime Minister Hun Sen
Capital: Phnom Penh
Type of Government: Parliamentary democracy with constitutional monarchy
Land area: 181,035 sq.km
Population: 14,131 thousands (2004)
Language: Khmer
Religion: Buddhism
Currency: Riel
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = 4,290 riel
GDP: US$ 4,215 million (2003) at current market prices
Major Industries: Textiles and Garments, Beverages, Food, Wood Processing
Major Exports: Garments, Textile Product Sawn, Wood Furniture, Rubber
Major Imports: Transport equipment and machinery, manufactured goods, food chemical

Cambodia is divided into 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities (krong, singular and plural). It is also divided by District (srok), Communion (khum), Great districts (khett), and also Islands (koh).
1. Municipalities (Krong): Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville (Kampong Som), Pailin, Kep
2. Province (Khett): Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Koh Kong, Kratié, Mondulkiri, Oddar Meancheay, Pursat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng and Takéo
3. Islands (Koh): Koh Sess, Koh Polaway, Koh Rong, Koh Thass, Koh Treas, Koh Traolach, Koh Tral, Koh Tang

Cambodia has an area of about 181,040 km2, sharing an 800 kilometer border with Thailand on the north and west, a 541 kilometer border with Laos on the northeast, and a 1,228 kilometer border with Vietnam on the east and southeast. It has 443 kilometers of coastline along the Gulf of Thailand.

TELEVISION in Cambodia

TV adspend: no data

Total TV households: no data

Free-TV penetration: 57%

Satellite TV:
1. Bayon TV,
2. CTN National,
3. CTN International,
4. TV 5 Cambodia,
5. KTV

TV channels: 7

Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license:
1. Bayon TV,
2. Cambodia TV (CTV 9),
3. Cambodian TV Project Channel 21 (CTN),
4. KTV,
5. Aspara TV,
6. TV 3,
7. TV 5 Cambodia

Local license: no data

Total cable channels: no data

Cable operators: National (or network) license: none

Local license: Cambodia Cable TV, Phnom Penh Municipal Cable TV

DTH operators: none

Satellite operators: none

Regulatory Agencies:
1. Ministry of Posts and Telecommunication
2. Ministry of Information
3. Ministry of Interior

Laws, Regulations: Law on Copyright and Related Rights (Section 4: Rights of the Broadcasting Organizations)

Special remarks: none

INDONESIA

Republik Indonesia

Head of State: President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Capital: Jakarta
Type of Government: Presidential; based on amended 1945 Constitution
Land area: 1,890,000 sq.km.
Population: 215,960 thousands (2004).
Language: Bahasa Indonesia
Religion: Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism
Currency: Rupiah
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = Rp 10,040
GDP: US$ 208,625 million (2003) at current market prices
Major Industries: Pulp and paper, cement, basic metals and fertilizer, power generation, telecommunication, transportation
Major Exports: Textile, electronic goods, footwear, oil & gas, plywood, sawn timber
Major Imports: Chemical and pharmaceutical, fertilizer, cotton yarns, textile fabric, machines, motor vehicles

Indonesia borders Malaysia on the island of Kalimantan, Papua New Guinea on the island of Papua, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Singapore borders with Indonesia’s Batam Island.

In addition to the capital city of Jakarta, principal cities of high population include Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Palembang, and Semarang.

Currently, Indonesia has 33 provinces (of those, 2 are special territories and 1 special capital region). The provinces are subdivided into regencies and cities, which are in turn split up in subdistricts.

The provinces are: Bali, Bangka-Belitung, Banten, Bengkulu, Central Java, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, East Java, East Kalimantan, East Nusa Tenggara, South Sumatra, Gorontalo, Jambi, Lampung, Maluku, North Maluku, North Sulawesi, North Sumatra, Papua, Riau, Riau Kepulauan, South East Sulawesi, South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, West Irian Jaya, West Java, West Kalimantan, West Nusa Tenggara, West Sulawesi, West Sumatra.

TELEVISION in Indonesia

TV adspend: US$ 774 million

Total TV households: 56 million

Free-TV penetration: 84%

Cable households: 600,000

Free-TV channels: over 100 nationwide

Terrestrial stations: Free-to-air national (or network) license:
1. RCTI, (together with TPI and TVG) is owned by Bimantara Tbk, a public company owned by Bhakti Investama Tbk. Bimantara, through its SPV, MNC (Media Nusantara Citra), is progressively acquiring radio stations (with target 100 stations by 2007)
2. SCTV, is owned by Sariaatmadja family, in close relations with John Singleton of Australia.
3. TPI. See RCTI.
4. Indosiar, is owned by Salim Group, whose sister company is Elshinta Radio, a 24-hour news radio network all across Indonesia.
5. ANTV, recently its 20% share is purchased by Star TV Hongkong, is owned by Bakrie Group and managed by Anindya Bakrie, son of today’s Coordinating Minister of State Welfare.
6. Metro TV, owned by Surya Paloh, closely related to the late head of state, Soeharto, is the only one of 24-hour news station. Paloh also owns Media Indonesia, the national newspaper.
7. Trans TV, – Trans TV is owned by Chaerul Tanjung, who also owns Bank Mega. Today, Trans TV leads Jakarta with in house production.
8. TV7, – TV7 is closely related with Kompas-Gramedia Group, Indonesia’s top-ranked print media corporation.
9. Lativi, is owned by Abdul Latief, the former Minister of Human Resources (during Soeharto’s era), who also owns the department store Pasaraya.
10. TVG. See RCTI.
11. TVRI 1 National, a state-owned station, in prepation for being a public television station.
12. TVRI 2 Local, a state-owned station, in prepation for being a public television station.

Local license

Java
1. MQTV, is owned by moslem leader Abdullah Gymnastiar.
2. Bandung TV, is owned by local West Java businessmen.
3. JTV, is closely related with Jawa Pos newspaper, a leading newspaper mogul in East Java.
4. Daai TV, is closely related with religious Buddhist foundation, Tzu Chi. Also operated in Medan.
5. Space Toon, positions itself as children station, that is owned by Sukoyo, a former shrimp trader closely related to Kompas-Gramedia Group.
6. O Channel, is closely related to the radio network Hard Rock FM and MTV Sky who also owns franchised magazines (MRA Group).
7. Jak TV, is partly owned by Erick Tohir, owner of Republika the national newspaper (Mahaka-Masima Group).
8. Elshinta TV, Jakarta. See Indosiar.
9. Bogor TV, Bogor.
10. Cahaya Banten TV, Banten.
11. Ganesha TV, Bandung.
12. STV, Bandung.
13. BMS TV, Purwokerto.
14. Tegal TV, Tegal.
15. Karesidenan TV, Magelang.
16. TA-TV, Semarang.
17. Reksa Birama TV (RBTV), Yogya.
18. TV Borobudur, Semarang.
19. TV-E (Surabaya, Semarang, etc.)
20. TV Anak, Surabaya.

Bali
21. Bali TV, is owned by Bali Post, a local Bali newspaper.

Sumatera
22. Palembang TV, is owned by Sumatera Express, local Sumatra leading newspaper.
23. Riau TV, is closely related with Jawa Pos newspaper, a leading newspaper mogul in East Java.
24. Deli TV, is owned by local businessman.
25. Batam TV, is closely related with Jawa Pos newspaper, a leading newspaper mogul in East Java.
26. Sri Gemilang TV, Riau.
27. SAM TV, Riau.
28. Urban TV, Batam.
28. Semenanjung TV, Batam.

Sulawesi
29. Makassar TV, Makassar.
30. Bunaken TV, Manado.
31. Manado TV, Manado.

Kalimantan
32. Tarakan TV, Tarakan.
33. PK TV, Bontang.

Maluku
34. Ambon TV
35. Maluku TV

Total terrestrial-local channels: 89 (still growing)

Total cable channels: 58 (with 7 local channels and growing)

Cable operators: National (or network) license
1. Kabelvision, is owned by Lippo Group.
2. Telkomvision is a company under PT Telkom Indonesia, state-owned telecommunication company.
3. Indosat M2, is owned by PT Indosat Tbk, a listed telecommunication company who also owns and operates satellite Palapa-C2
4. Metra, is a company under PT Telkom Indonesia Tbk, state-owned telecommunication company, with PT Indosat Tbk, a satellite and telecommunication company.
5. Sky-Net, is a company broadcasting most channels from countries at northern part of Asia.

Local license
1. Astabel Samarinda (of total 47 small operators)
2. Astabel Balikpapan (of total 36 small operators)
3. Makassar operators (of total 300 small operators South Sulawesi)

DTH operators:
1. Indovision, is owned by PT Bimantara Tbk, who is using satellite Cakrawarta-1 (will be dysfunction in 2007)
2. Telkomvision, is a company under PT Telkom Indonesia, state-owned telecommunication company, who is using satellite Telkom-1 and Telkom-2.
3. Astro Nusantara, is half-owned by Kabelvision and half-owned by Astro Malaysia, whose license is still in dispute up till Q1 of 2006.

Satellite Bird operators:
1. Indosat/Satelindo (Palapa C 2)
2. Media Citra Indostar (Cakrawarta 1)
3. Telkom Indonesia (Telkom 1, Telkom 2)
4. Pasifik Satelit Nusantara (Garuda 1)

Regulatory Agencies:
1. Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia (Indonesian Broadcasting Commission) Principal Office and 33 Provincial Offices: to regulate broadcasting independently, content to the structure of nationwide broadcasting system.
2. Department of Communications and Informatics: to regulate technical issues regarding frequencies allocation.
3. Film Censorship Board: to execute censorship before airng the drama programmes, including advertising materials. It remains under the supervision of Department of Communications and Informatics.
4. Commission for Supervision of Business Competition: to regulate firms in any sector, also regarding broadcasting and cable competition.

Laws, Regulations:
1. Constitution 1945, Article (28) Letter (f)
2. Broadcasting Law 2002
3. Telecommunication Law 1999
4. Prevention of monopoly Law 2000
5. Provincial Government Law 2004

LAO PDR

Sathalanalat Pasathipatai Pasason Lao

Head of State: President Khamtai Siphandon
Head of Government: Prime Minister Bounnhang Vorachith
Capital: Vientiane
Type of Government: Socialist republic
Next election: Early 2007 (for the National Assembly)
Early 2006 (for the LPRP Congress)
Land area: 236,800 sq.km
Population: 5,758 million (2004)
Language: Lao
Religion: Buddhism
Currency: Kip
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = 10,880 kip
GDP: US$ 12,043 thousands (2003) at current market prices
Major Industries: Garment industry, wood-based and processing industries, electricity
Major Exports: Coffee, electricity, clothing, wood and forest product and Gypsum
Major Imports: Industrial machinery, chemicals, iron, electrical machinery and parts, oil, construction material and consumption goods

Laos is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia and the thickly forested landscape consists mostly of rugged mountains, the highest of which is Phou Bia at 9,242 feet (2,817 m), with some plains and plateaus. The Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Thailand, whereas the mountains of the Annamite Chain form most of the eastern border with Vietnam.

Laos is divided into 16 provinces (khoueng), 1 municipality* (kampheng nakhon), and 1 special zone** (khetphiset):
1. Attapu
2. Bokeo
3. Borikhamxay
4. Champassack
5. Houaphan
6. Khammouane
7. Louang Namtha
8. Louangphabang
9. Oudomxay
10. Phongsaly
11. Saravane
12. Savannakhet
13. Vientiane *
14. Vientiane Province
15. Sayaboury
16. Saysomboun **
17. Xekong
18. Xieng Khouang

China has recently allowed its citizens to travel more freely to Laos. As such, Chinese tourists are expected to account for 25% of the total number of visitors to Laos (up from only a few percent) in 2006. Pressures to modernize tourist infrastructure, particularly to cater to package tourism, are expected to significantly impact Luang Prabang and other culturally important Laotian cities.

TELEVISION in Lao

TV adspend: no data

Total TV households: 52,000 (1997)

Free-TV penetration: no data

Satellite TV: none

Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license:
1. Lao National Television (LNTV),
2. Lao Television Channel 2
3. Lao Television Channel 3
4. Lao Television Channel 4

Local license: none

Total cable channels: none

Cable operators: National (or network) license: none

Local license: none

DTH operators: none

Satellite operators: none

Regulatory Agencies:
1. Ministry of Communications, Transport, Post, and Construction
2. Ministry of Information dan Culture
3. Ministry of Interior

Laws, Regulations: none specific

Special remarks: The Government controls all radio, television, and newspaper thus reacts harshly to expressions of political dissent. Content is therefore severly restricted. Satellite dishes are legal on payment of a fee to the Government.

MALAYSIA

رسكوتوان مليس-Persekutuan Malaysia

Head of State: DYMM Seri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agung Tuanku Syah Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail
Head of Government: Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Capital: Kuala Lumpur
Type of Government: Federated parliamentary democracy with constitutional monarch
Next election: March 2009
Land area: 330,257 sq.km
Population: 23,671 thousand (2004).
Language: Melayu, English, Chinese, Tamil
Religion: Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism, Christianity
Currency: Malaysian Ringgit
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = RM 3.78
GDP: US$ 103,737 million (2003) at current market prices
Major Industries: Electronic & electrical goods, textiles, clothing & footwear, chemicals and metal products and rubber
Major Exports: Electronic & electric machinery, petroleum & LNG, textiles, clothes, oil, sawn timber
Major Imports: Manufacturing inputs, machinery & transport equipment

Malaysia is divided into two types of political divisions: states (negeri) and Federal Territories (Wilayah Persekutuan) that collectively have the status of a state.

Eleven states are situated on Peninsular Malaysia, two on Borneo Island.
Nine peninsular states are monarchies (hereditary sultanates unless otherwise mentioned): Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan (which has an elected hereditary Yang di-Pertuan Besar), Pahang, Perak (like Malaysia itself, a system of revolving monarchy with three royal families), Perlis (the only Raja), Selangor, and Terengganu. Malacca and Penang, both on the peninsula and formerly part of the Straits Settlements under direct British control, as well as Sabah and Sarawak, both on Borneo, each have a federally appointed titular Governor or Yang di-Pertua Negeri.

Two federal territories Kuala Lumpur (the legislative capital; often called “KL”) and Putrajaya (the new administrative capital) are located on the Malay Peninsula, while the third, Labuan, is an island off the coast of Sabah.

TELEVISION in Malaysia

TV adspend: no data

Total TV Households: 4,093,000

Free-TV penetration: 97%

Free Satellite TV: TV3, 8TV

Satellite households: 1,400,000

Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license:
1. Radio Televisyen Malaysia 1 (RTM-1),
2. Radio Televisyen Malaysia 2 (RTM-2),
3. TV3 – Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Bhd, Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Berhad (STMB) or TV3 was incorporated in 1983 as Malaysia’s first commercial television station. It is part of Media Prima group of companies.
Also called ‘TV Tiga’ (its name in Malay), it began broadcasting in the Klang Valley, (the area surrounding Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia’s largest city) on June 1, 1984. It soon increased coverage nationwide, and today can be received in neighbouring countries, either as a terrestrial channel or via satellite. In Singapore, the channel ran into controversy because it broadcast programmes in Cantonese. The Singapore government prevented local newspapers and magazines from carrying listings for the channel, even though these were available for the other Malaysian channels, and TV3 is not available on StarHub, Singapore’s only cable TV operator.
4. Natseven TV (NTV7), After being in operation since 1998, ntv7 is proud of its achievement in building a strong following amongst Malaysian television audiences. So much so that the public’s perception is that the Station has been around for much longer than this.Broadcast signals go through a network of 10 transmitters dotted around the country. Daily transmission begins at 9.00 am until past midnight. In October 2005, Media Prima Berhad announced its acquisition of ntv7. Media Prima also owns 3 other private TV stations in Malaysia – TV3, 8TV & Channel 9 as well as a controlling stake in The New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Bhd.
5. Metropolitan TV (8TV),
6. CH-9 media (Channel 9), Channel 9 was a Malaysian private-owned television station which started operations in 2003 and started taking a break since February 1, 2005. Test transmission started on April 1, 2006, airing music videos mostly in Malay.
On April 22, 2006, Channel 9 will be relaunch as TV9 after being sold to Media Prima, Malaysia’s largest media
company with the new slogan, ‘Dekat Di Hati’. TV9 will air programmes mainly in Malay.

Local license: (network-subsidiary license)

Television broadcast stations: 27 (plus 15 high-power repeaters) (1999)

Total cable channels: 58

Cable operators: National (or network) license: none specific

Local license: none specific

DTH operators: Astro Malaysia

Pay TV operators:
1. Astro Malaysia, Astro is a subscription-based multi-channel satellite TV service in Malaysia and also Brunei, the service is also available in some parts of Indonesia. It was launched in 1995, after the Malaysian government eased its ban on private ownership of satellite dishes.
The service uses a ku-Band satellite, which requires a smaller size dish to receive the signal – larger satellite dishes are still banned. The signal itself is in DVB-S form and is encrypted.
Channels carried on the Astro platform are still subject to editorial control or censorship, although Western news channels like BBC World have been able to secure carriage on it, in spite of previous disagreements with the Malaysian government. Astro’s own News Channel carries programming from the Arabic language news channel Al Jazeera, dubbed in Malay, as well as from Australia’s ABC Asia Pacific, which has not yet been able to secure carriage on Astro.
2. Fine TV
3. MiTV, MiTV Corporation Sdn Bhd is Malaysia’s second paid television operator. It was launched in September 2005 after having obtained all the necessary approvals from the censorship board on its broadcast contents. The company is offering over 40 channels from content providers worldwide.
MiTV Corporation broadcasts up-to-date 24-hour channels from around the world, including channels such as MGM (English Movies), MATV (Hong Kong Movies), Arirang (Korean) and ZOOM (Bollywood). The subscription fee is RM30 a month.
One of MiTV’s distinguishing traits from Astro (satellite TV), the only other paid television operator in Malaysia, is that it uses a standard UHF television antenna instead of a satellite dish to receive broadcasts. As a result, some of Astro’s major caveats, such as disruption of service under bad weather conditions, do not apply to MiTV users.
MiTV is largely owned by Tan Sri Vincent Tan, boss of Berjaya Group.

Satellite operators: Media Prima (Measat 1, Measat 2, Measat 3)

Regulatory Agencies:
1. Ministry of Water, Energy, and Communications
2. Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission (MCMC)

Laws, Regulations: Communications and Multimedia Act 1998

Special remarks: The Act consists of 282 sections regulating from ministerial powers and procedures, licences, MCMC powers and procedures, economic and technical regulations to consumer and social protections.

MYANMAR

Pyi-daung-zu Myan-ma Naing-ngan-daw
Union of Myanmar

Head of State: Senior General Than Shwe
Head of Government: Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Soe Win
Capital: Yangon
Type of Government: Military
Next election: Currently suspended
Land area: 676,577 sq.km
Population: 54,745 thousands (2004)
Language: Myanmar
Religion: Buddhism, Christianity, Islam
Currency: Myanmar Kyat
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = 1,180 kyat (parallel market rate)
US$ 1 = 6.72 kyat (official rate)
GDP: US$ 9,605 million (2003) at current market prices
Major Industries: Agro-based industries, textiles industries, steel mills
Major Exports: Rice, teak, beans & pulses, rubber, coffee, minerals, gems marine products
Major Imports: Power tillers, hand tractor, fertilizer, diesel oil, cement, dumper, loader, spare parts, water pumps, hydraulic excavator

Myanmar is located between Bangladesh and Thailand, with China to the north and India to the north-west, with coastline on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. The country has a total area of 678,500 square kilometres (261,970 mi²), of which almost half is forest or woodland.

In the north, the Hengduan Shan mountains form the border with China. The fertile plains of the Ayeyarwady and Thanlwin Rivers are in the central lowlands of Myanmar. Most of the country’s population lives in this central lowland. The Shan Plateau lies east of Mandalay. In the south, the Ayeyarwady River fans out into a wide and fertile delta. Many crops are grown in this region, which borders the Andaman Sea. The Gulf of Martaban also indents the southern coast of Myanmar. It drains into the Andaman Sea.

Myanmar is divided into states and divisions. Divisions are predominantly Bamar. States, in essence, are divisions in which particular ethnic minorities exist. There are 7 divisions and 7 states in the country. The administrative divisions are further subdivided into townships, wards, and villages.

Major cities such as Yangon and Mandalay have larger metropolitan areas.
Therefore, townships in the suburbs of such cities are designated as myo-thit (New Town). Upon reaching the government’s installed development markers, the New Towns become townships. Within the states, there are ethnic-based movements for self-autonomy and independence.

Divisions
– Ayeyarwady Division (Irrawaddy Division)
– Bago Division (Pegu Division)
– Magway Division
– Mandalay Division
– Sagaing Division
– Tanintharyi Division (Tenasserim Division)
– Yangon Division (Rangoon Division)

States
– Chin State
– Kachin State
– Kayin State (Karen State)
– Kayah State (Karenni State)
– Mon State
– Rakhine State (Arakan State)
– Shan State

TELEVISION in Myanmar

TV adspend: no data

Total TV households: 260,000 (1997)

Free-TV penetration: 82% (only out of 324 towns, total 266 tows are receiving telecast)

Total cable channels: none

Satellite TV: MRTV3 International

Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license:
1. TV Myanmar channel 6, state-run, operated by Myanmar TV and Radio Department – broadcasts in Burmese, Arakanese, Shan, Karen, Kachin, Kayah, Chin, Mon and English
2. MRTV-3, state-run international TV service
3. MRTV-4, pay TV service(only available in Yangon)
4. TV Myawady, army-run network

Local license: no data

Cable operators: National (or network) license: no data

Local license: no data

DTH operators: none

Satellite operators: none

Regulatory Agencies: MRTD (Myanmar Radio Television Department)
Myanmar Television & Radio Department

Laws, Regulations: none specific
Special remarks: none specific

SINGAPORE

Republic of SingaporeRepublik Singapura – சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு

Head of State: President S R Nathan
Head of Government: Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
Capital: Singapore
Type of Government: Parliamentary democracy
Next election: 2007
Land area: 697.1 sq.km
Population: 4.198 million (2004)
Language: English, Malay, Mandarin, Tamil
Religion: Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Taoism and Hinduism
Currency: Singapore Dollar (S$)
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = S$ 1.69
GDP: US$106,818 million (2004) at current market prices
Major Industries: Electronics, chemicals, banking and finance, real estate, tourism
Major Exports: Petroleum products, industrial machines, radio & television receivers, electronic component & parts, clothing, beverages & tobacco
Major Imports: Crude petroleum, iron & steel, industrial machines, electric generators, electronic component and parts

Singapore is a diamond-shaped island separated from the Peninsular Malaysia by the Tebrau Straits. (details)

Singapore is a diamond-shaped island with surrounding smaller islands. There are two connections from Singapore to the Malaysian state of Johor – a man-made causeway known as the Causeway to the north, crossing the Tebrau Straits, and Tuas Second Link, a bridge in the western part of Singapore that connects to Johor.

Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore’s many smaller islands. The highest point of Singapore is Bukit Timah Hill, with a height of 166 metres (538 ft).

TELEVISION in Singapore

TV adspend: no data

Total TV households: 1.33 million (1997)

Free-TV penetration: 99%

Free satellite TV: Channel NewsAsia (AsiaSat 3S)

Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license:

Television broadcast stations (as of March 2006): 6 free-to-air(analogue) + 1 digital channel (TV Mobile)
1. Channel 5, MediaCorp TV’s Channel 5 is a 24-hour, English-language television channel based in Singapore. Programmes on Channel 5 normally includes English dramas, variety shows, news, current affairs and game programmes and general adaption of overseas productions, such as Singapore Idol and Who Wants to be a Millionaire?.
2. Channel 8, MediaCorp TV’s Channel 8 (八频道, Bā Píndào) is a 24-hour, Chinese-language television channel. The highest-rated channel in Singapore, it has Chinese dramas, variety shows, news and current affairs programmes. Special events like “NKF Charity Show”, “Star Search” and “Star Awards” are broadcasted on this channel.
3. Central & Suria,
4. Channel NewsAsia, Channel NewsAsia (Simplified Chinese: 亚洲新闻台; Traditional Chinese: 亞洲新聞台; Hanyu Pinyin: Yàzhōu Xīnwén Tái; abbreviated CNA) is a pan-Asian news channel based in Singapore and owned by Mediacorp. Started in 1 March 1999, it has since grown into a major Asian news broadcaster with programmes telecast to 16.3 million homes and hotels in 20 Asian territories today. It is available on the Asiasat 3S satellite. Channel NewsAsia Singapore’s feed is available on the free to air network in Singapore as well as on MediaCorp’s TV Mobile service on SBS Transit public buses & selected locales.
5. Channel U, MediaCorp TV’s Channel U (U频道; pinyin: U Pīn Dào) is the second Chinese-language channel in Singapore which commenced broadcast on 1 January 2005 (although it had been broadcast since 6 May 2001 under SPH Mediaworks). Taking over the channel from SPH Mediaworks as a result of the media merger, it aims to target the younger generations of Singaporeans as an alternative to the more mainstream and established Channel 8 with its new tagline, Leading Asia’s Trends 带动亚洲流行.
6. Channel i

Local license: none

Remarks: MediaCorp TV: Channel 5, Channel 8, Channel U, TVMobile
MediaCorp TV12: Suria, Central, Arts Central, Kids Central, Vasantham Central,
MediaCorp News: Channel NewsAsia

Stations From Overseas: Due to Singapore’s close proximity to Malaysia and Indonesia, many Singaporeans are able to enjoy a variety of TV programmes from the following overseas stations which are broadcasting on VHF and UHF bands:
RTM 1 (http://www.rtm.net.my/) aka “TV1″ (Malaysia)
RTM 2 (http://www.rtm.net.my/) aka “TV2″ (Malaysia)
TV3 (http://www.tv3.com.my/) (Malaysia)
NTV7 (http://www.ntv7.com.my/) (Malaysia)
8TV (http://www.8tv.com.my/) (Malaysia)
TVRI (http://www.tvri.co.id/) (Indonesia)
Batam TV (Indonesia)
TPI (http://www.tpi.tv/) (Indonesia)
RCTI (http://www.rcti.tv/) (Indonesia)
SCTV (http://www.sctv.co.id/) (Indonesia)
ANTV (http://www.an.tv/) (Indonesia)
Total cable channels: 41
Cable/broadband operators:
National (or network) license: StarHub, SingTel, Anytime, Tivit
Local license: none
DTH operators: none
Satellite operators: AsiaSat 2, AsiaSat 3S AsiaSat 4

Regulatory Agencies:
1. Ministry of Information, Communication, and The Arts (MITA)
2. Multimedia Development Authority (MDA) & Information Development Authority (IDA): to regulate the use of receiving satellite dishes, ensures public service broadcasting obligations by broadcasting licensees, establishes guidelines on programme quality and balance in subject matter and censorship, collects licence fees from households, vehicle owners and broadcasters, and liaises with foreign broadcasters to promote and market Singapore as a regional hub.

Laws, Regulations: Broadcasting Act 2003 (revised edition)

Special remarks: Radio and television stations are all government-owned entities. All seven television channels are owned by MediaCorp; its only other competitor, SPH Mediaworks closed its television channel on January 1, 2005. Due to the proximity of Singapore to Malaysia and Indonesia, almost all radios and television sets in Singapore can pick up broadcast signals from both countries. Private ownership of satellite dishes is banned, but most households have access to the StarHub cable TV network. As of 1997, there were 1.3 million televisions in Singapore.

All radio stations are operated either by MediaCorp, the Singapore Armed Forces Reservist Association (SAFRA) or UnionWorks. As of 1997, there were 2.5 million radios in Singapore.

The print media is dominated by Singapore Press Holdings which publishes The Straits Times. Daily newspapers are published in English, Chinese, Malay, and Tamil.

THAILAND

ราชอาณาจักรไทย
Racha-anachakra Thai
Kingdom of Thailand

Head of State: His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej
Head of Government: Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont
Capital: Bangkok
Type of Government: Parliamentary democracy with constitutional monarch
Next election: Upper House (due in April 2006)
Lower House (due in February 2009)
Land area: 513,254 sq.km
Population: 64,470 thousands (2003)
Language: Thai
Religion: Buddhism, Islam
Currency: Baht
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = 41.24 baht
GDP: US$ 143,303 million (2003) at current market prices
Major Industries: Electronics, gems/jewelry, footwear, textiles, clothing
Major Exports: Textiles, computer & components, integrated circuits and parts, gems and jewelry, footwear
Major Imports: Industrial machinery, iron & steel electrical machinery & parts, chassis body

Thailand is home to several distinct geographic regions, partly corresponding to the provincial groups. The north of the country is mountainous, with the highest point being Doi Inthanon at 2,576 m. The northeast consists of the Khorat Plateau, bordered to the east by the Mekong river. The centre of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand. The south consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula.

Thailand is divided into 75 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat), which are gathered into 5 groups of provinces by location.
There are also 2 special governed districts: the capital Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon in Thai) and Pattaya. However Pattaya is still part of Chonburi Province.
Some Thai people still count Bangkok as one province, making Thailand a 76-province country. Each province is divided into smaller districts – as of 2000 there are 795 districts (อำเภอ, amphoe), 81 sub-districts (กิ่งอำเภอ, king amphoe) and 50 districts of Bangkok (เขต, khet). However, some parts of the provinces bordering Bangkok are referred to as Greater Bangkok (ปริมณฑล, pari monthon). These Provinces include Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan, Nakhon Pathom, Samut Sakhon. The name of each capital city (เมือง, mueang) is the same as that of the province: for example, the capital of Chiang Mai province (changwat Chiang Mai) is amphoe Mueang Chiang Mai. The 75 provinces are as follows:
North
Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Kamphaeng Phet, Lampang, Lamphun, Mae Hong Son, Nakhon Sawan, Nan, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phrae, Sukhothai, Tak, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit
Northeast
Amnat Charoen, Buri Ram, Chaiyaphum, Kalasin, Khon Kaen, Loei, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Roi Et, Sakon Nakhon, Si Sa Ket, Surin, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Yasothon
East
Chanthaburi, Chon Buri, Prachin Buri, Rayong, Sa Kaeo, Trat
Central
Ang Thong, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Kanchanaburi, Lop Buri, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ratchaburi, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Saraburi, Sing Buri, Suphan Buri
South
Chumphon, Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat, Pattani, Phang Nga, Phatthalung, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, Songkhla, Surat Thani, Trang, Yala
Special Governed Districts
Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (Bangkok), Mueang Pattaya (Pattaya)

TELEVISION in Thailand

TV adspend: no data

Total TV households: 17,520,000

Free-TV penetration: 98%

Cable households: 427,000

DTH households: 436,193

Broadband households: 1 million

Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license:
Thailand’s six terrestrial TV stations are based in Bangkok and are relayed to all parts of the country through repeaters. Although Thailand has experimented with digital terrestrial television on a trial basis, the delays in establishing the NBC will likely slow the conversion from analogue to digital broadcasting technology.
1. ITV/Independent TV, public company limited, operated by concessionaire.
2. TV 3/Thai TV Color Channel 3, owned by MCOT and operated by concessionaire.
3. TV 5, owned by Royal Thai Army TV and operated by the Army itself.
4. BBTV/Bangkok Broadcasting Television TV7, owned by Royal Thai Army TV and operated by concessionaire.
5. TV 9/Thai TV Color Channel 9, owned by MCOT, became a public company listed in the Thailand Stock Market November 2004.
6. TVT/TV 11/Television of Thailand, owned by Public Relations Department, and it is non-commercial.

Local license: 28 rebroadcast of TV7, and 21 of TV 11

Total cable channels: 106

Cable operators: National (or network) license:
1. UBC
2. Thaistar TV

Local license: 86 companies

DTH operators: UBC (United Broadcasting Corporation)

Satellite operators: Thaicom 1, Thaicom 2, Thaicom 3

Free-to-air channels (via satellites) : 19

Regulatory Agencies:
1. National Public Relations Committee (NPRC)
2. National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) March 1992
– issue licenses for new commercial free-to-air and satellite stations
– permit to operate radio and TV broadcasting business both for cable and/or non-cable
– regulate and control according to technical license condition
3. Mass Communication Organisation of Thailand (MCOT)
– regulating and monitoring the pay TV business activities, e.g. pricing of progamming packages, ads on channels
– granting, renawal, termination of licenses known as BTO (build transfer operate) concessions to allow operation of pay TV business
– other decisions, e.g. change of the interpretation of existing regulations by courts or regulators

Laws, Regulations:
1. The Thailand Constitution 1997, Section 40
2. The Telecommunications Act 2001
3. The Broadcasting Act 2000
4. The Trade Competition Act 1999
5. The Foreign Business Act 1999

Special remarks:
– NPRC and NBC supervise the reception of foreign broadcasts and approve broadcasting policy.
– All of 6 terrestrial stations are government-owned. Only Channel 3, Channel 7, and ITV are allowed for concessions provided by private sectors

THE PHILIPPINES

Republika ng Pilipinas
Republic of the Philippines

Head of State: President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Capital: Manila
Type of Government: Presidential democracy
Next election: May 2010
Land area: 76,946 thousand in 2000 (actual); 85,237 thousand in 2005 (projected)
Population: 82,664 thousands (2004)
Language: Filipino, English, Spanish
Religion: Christianity (Catholicism, Protestantism, Philippine Independent Church, Iglesia ni Kristo); Islam
Currency: Peso
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = 54.15 peso
GDP: US$86,123 million (2004) at current market prices
Major Industries: Priority sectors: construction materials, electronics, food, giftware and holiday decor, home furnishings, IT & IT-enabled services, marine products, motor vehicle parts and components, organic and natural products, wearables
Major Exports: Electronic products; garments; ignition wiring set and other wiring set in vehicles, aircrafts, and ships; coconut oil; woodcrafts and furniture; products manufactured from materials imported on consignment basis petroleum products; metal components; cathodes and sections of cathodes of refined copper; fresh bananas (August 2005)
Major Imports: Electronic products; mineral fuels, lubricants, and related materials; industrial machinery and equipment; transport equipment; iron and steel, cereal and cereal preparations; textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles, and related products; telecommunications equipment and electrical machines, plastics in primary and nonprimary forms; organic and inorganic chemicals, (August 2005)

The Philippines constitutes an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometres. It borders the Philippine Sea on the east, on the South China Sea the west, and the Celebes Sea on the south.
The island of Borneo lies a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan directly north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are to the south, and Palau is to the east beyond the Philippine Sea.

The islands are commonly divided into three island groups: Luzon (Regions I to V, NCR & CAR), Visayas (VI to VIII), and Mindanao (IX to XIII & ARMM). The busy port of Manila, on Luzon, is the country’s capital and second largest city after it’s suburb Quezon City.
Regions
– Ilocos Region (Region I)
– Cagayan Valley (Region II)
– Central Luzon (Region III)
– CALABARZON (Region IV-A) ¹ ²
– MIMAROPA (Region IV-B) ¹ ² ³
– Bicol Region (Region V)
– Western Visayas (Region VI) ³
– Central Visayas (Region VII)
– Eastern Visayas (Region VIII)
– Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX)
– Northern Mindanao (Region X)
– Davao Region (Region XI)
– SOCCSKSARGEN (Region XII) ¹
– Caraga (Region XIII)
– Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
– Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
– National Capital Region (NCR) (Metro Manila)

The Philippines is divided into a hierarchy of local government units (LGUs) with the 79 provinces as the primary unit. Provinces are further subdivided into cities and municipalities, which are in turn composed of barangays. The barangay is the smallest local government unit.

The Philippines is divided into 17 regions with all provinces grouped into one of 16 regions for administrative convenience. The National Capital Region however, is divided into four special districts.

Most government offices establish regional offices to serve the constituent provinces. The regions themselves do not possess a separate local government, with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

TELEVISION in The Philippines

TV adspend: US$ 562,54 with 59% shares of TV (2002)

Total TV households: 3,7 million (1997)

Free-TV penetration: 96%

Cable penetration: 20% of population

DTH households: 30,000

Cable TV channels: 100+

Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license:

VHF Stations
1. ABS-CBN on channel 2
2. NBN on channel 4
3. ABC on channel 5
4. GMA on channel 7
5. RPN on channel 9
6. QTV on channel 11
7. IBC on channel 13
UHF Stations
1. SBN on channel 21
2. Studio on channel 23
3. Net on channel 25
4. Citynet on channel 27
5. RJTV on channel 29
6. UNTV on channel 37
7. MTV on channel 41
8. 3ABN on channel 45

Local license: see below

NOTES:
1. ACQ Kingdom Broadcasting Network is the 24-hour service of broadcasting arm of a Philippine television evangelist, Pastor Apollo C. Quiboloy. Based in Davao, it is available via terrestrial broadcast, cable, and satellite. Its single television channel of a dozen self-produced religious programs in English and Tagalog (www.kingdomofjesuschrist.org/subcontents/kbn_acq_programs.htm).
ACQ-KBN also maintains a network of radio stations under the name “Sonshine Network”. Licensed in late 2003 by the Philippine government to operate thirty-eight broadcast channels, they now claim to operate thirty with plans to operate six more. However, on June 23, 2005 the Philippine National Telecommunications Commission ordered their Davao channel 43 shut down due to interference with another channel.
2. ABS-CBN Channel 2, launched at June 13, 1946 (parent company); October 23, 1953 (television network). The network’s main broadcast facilities are located at the ABS-CBN Broadcast Center in Mother Ignacia St., Diliman, Quezon City.
The network has also introduced its second terrestrial Channel, Studio 23 (UHF network), as well as cable channels MYX (a music channel), ABSCBN News Channel (a cable news channel), CinemaOne Global (movie channel), Cinema One (movie cable channel, Lifestyle Network (home and lifestyle channel), Pinoy Central TV (regionally produced shows) and Hero (the country’s first Tagalog-dubbed Anime Channel). The network’s radio stations include DWRR 101.9 (FMManila) and DZMM 630-khz (AM-Manila).
ABS-CBN has established regional stations and news bureaus to handle operations in different areas throughout the Philippines. It also broadcasts to locations all over the world via The Filipino Channel, managed by ABSCBN International. Shows are also available for live viewing and subscription via the Internet through ABS-CBN Interactive’s ABS-CBNNow! service.
The ABS-CBN Regional Network Group is the provincial network of ABS-CBN. It is responsible for live/pretaped relay of shows aired in Manila throughout the country. The ABS-CBN Regional Network Group has several stations in each region all over the country. This group also delivers news in each region and the fiestas in the cities. Through the group, ABS-CBN has the following regional stations in the Philippines:
Antipolo City (ABS-CBN Antipolo)
Bacolod City (ABS-CBN Bacolod)
Baguio City (ABS-CBN Baguio)
Baler, Aurora (ABS-CBN Baler)
Batangas City (ABS-CBN Batangas)
Botolan, Zambales (ABS-CBN Botolan)
Bukidnon (ABS-CBN Bukidnon)
Bulacan (ABS-CBN Bulacan)
Butuan City (ABS-CBN Butuan)
Cabanatuan City (ABS-CBN Cabanatuan)
Cagayan De Oro City (ABS-CBN Cagayan De Oro)
Cebu City (ABS-CBN Cebu)
Cotabato City (ABS-CBN Cotabato)
Daet, Camarines Norte (ABS-CBN Daet)
Dagupan City (ABS-CBN Dagupan)
Davao City (ABS-CBN Davao)
Dipolog City (ABS-CBN Dipolog)
Dumaguete City (ABS-CBN Dumaguete)
General Santos City (ABS-CBN General Santos)
Iligan City (ABS-CBN Iligan)
Iloilo City (ABS-CBN Iloilo)
Isabela (ABS-CBN Isabela)
Jagna, Bohol (ABS-CBN Jagna, Bohol)
Kalibo, Aklan (ABS-CBN Kalibo)
Koronadal City (ABS-CBN Koronadal)
Laoag City (ABS-CBN Laoag)
Legaspi City (ABS-CBN Legaspi)
Lipa City (ABS-CBN Lipa)
Lucena City (ABS-CBN Lucena)
Naga City (ABS-CBN Naga)
Olongapo City (ABS-CBN Olongapo)
Pagadian City (ABS-CBN Pagadian)
Pampanga (ABS-CBN Pampanga)
Puerto Princesa City (ABS-CBN Puerto Princesa)
Roxas City (ABS-CBN Roxas)
San Pablo City (ABS-CBN San Pablo)
Surigao City (ABS-CBN Surigao)
Tacloban City (ABS-CBN Tacloban)
Tarlac City (ABS-CBN Tarlac)
Tuguegarao City (ABS-CBN Tuguegarao)
Zamboanga City (ABS-CBN Zamboanga)

2. GMA Channel 7, (Global Media Arts)
Network, Incorporated) is one of the largest broadcast networks in the Philippines. Launched at June 14, 1950 (Radio Broadcasts) and October 29, 1961(Television Broadcasts), it provides news and entertainment programs through its 44 fully-owned television relay stations, 3 affiliate television stations and 34 radio stations throughout the Philippines.
The network also offers its shows outside the Philippines through GMA Pinoy TV. Its headquarters, the GMA Network Center, is located at EDSA corner Timog Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Atty.
The channels are: GMA Channel 7, GMA Pinoy TV (Worldwide), Quality TeleVision Channel 11, Citynet channel 27, and RGMA TV Nationwide.

3. ABC – Associated Broadcasting Corporation, was launched at June 19, 1960. ABC is a Philippine
television network, with main broadcast facilities in
Novaliches, Quezon City, Metro Manila. It is the third oldest television network in the country, and currently is the third largest television network.
It is currently owned by businessman Antonio Cojuangco, former Chairman of the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) and owner of Dream Satellite Broadcasting and Bank of Commerce, among others.
Its main station is DWET-5 (ABC-5) in Metro Manila. It also operates a radio station, Dream 106 FM, in Metro Manila.
a. ABC-TV Stations Nationwide:
ABC-5 Manila
ABC-2 Laoag
ABC-28 Baguio
ABC-32 Bacolod
ABC-21 Cebu
ABC-29 Zamboanga
ABC-21 Cagayan De Oro
ABC-2 Davao
ABC-12 General Santos
b. ABC Cable Television Station:
SkyCable Gold and SkyCable Silver Metro Manila on Channel 10
Global Destiny Cable Makati City on Channel 10
SunVision Cable Taguig City on Channel 10
c. Radio Stations Nationwide:
DWET 106.7 MHz-Manila
DWTE 106.7 MHz-Laoag
DXET 106.7 MHz-Davao
DXER 93.5 MHz-General Santos

4. National Broadcasting Network is the official government TV station in the Philippines launched in 1974. The country’s only government television network began operations in 1974 as GTV-4. It was renamed Maharlika Broadcasting System in 1980 and following the People Power Revolution in 1986, became People’s Television 4. On March 26, 1992, President Corazon C. Aquino signed Republic Act 7306 turning PTV Network into a government corporation known formally as People’s Television Network, Inc.
NBN studios and transmitter are located at Broadcast Complex, Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City with the power of 40,000 watts. As provided for in its charter, PTNI is mandated to give its viewers a balanced mix of news, public affairs, educational, cultural and sports programs.
a. NBN Stations Nationwide:
DWGT TV-4 Manila
DZZM TV-8 Baguio
DWAE TV-4 Vigan
DZZV TV-11 Laoag
DZZN TV-4 Ilagan, Isabela
DZNN TV-13 Tuguegarao
DYGS TV-4 Puerto Princesa
DYMM TV-13 Romblon
DWMA TV-8 Naga
DZPN TV-8 Legaspi
DZGA 4 Goa, Camarines Sur
DWLG TV-2 Sorsogon
DZZV TV-7 Caramoran, Catanduanes
DZVZ TV-9 Panganiban, Catanduanes
DZVV TV-2 San Miguel, Catanduanes
DYYB TV-2 Iloilo
DYDY TV-2 Guimaras
DYTL TV-2 Bacolod
DYPT TV-11 Cebu
DYMY TV-10 Dumaguete
DYCP TV-8 Tacloban
DYWP TV-12 Calbayog
DXAA TV-8 Kidapawan
DXMI TV-4 Marawi
DXBN TV-9 Butuan
DXBC TV-6 Cagayan De Oro
DXNP TV-11 Davao
DXVC TV-7 Zamboanga
DXPT TV-11 Pagadian
DXXM TV-11 Dipolog
DXGN TV-5 General Santos
b. NBN Cable Television Station:
SkyCable Gold and SkyCable Silver Metro Manila on Channel 06
Global Destiny Cable Makati City on Channel 08
SunVision Cable Taguig City on Channel 06

5. IBC 13, Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation is a VHF Television Station of the Government
Communications Group headed by the Press Secretary. It was launched in 1975 by a Marcos crony Roberto
Benedicto after sequestering the original channel 13 owned by the late Andres Soriano. After the 1986 EDSA Revolution, all of the stocks and assets of IBC-13, RPN-9 and BBC-2 were sequestered by the Philippine Commission on Good Government (PCGG). President Corazon Aquino awarded BBC-2 through an executive order to ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation. IBC-13 and RPN-9 and were turned over to the Government Communications Group. There were plans to auction the TV frequency rights currently in use by IBC-13 and RPN-9 in the future. In 1993, IBC became a 100% government owned station by virtue of a compromise agreement between PCGG and Mr. Roberto S. Benedicto, management and marketing were returned to the IBC Board of Directors.
Programming remained at a standstill in preparation for the launching of a new image. IBC 13 studios is located at Broadcast City Capitol Hills Diliman, Quezon City and transmitter at San Francisco Del Monte, Quezon City.
a. IBC TV Stations Nationwide:
DZTV TV-13 Manila (VHF Network)
DWCS TV-13 Laoag (VHF Network)
DWHB TV-6 Baguio (VHF Network)
TV-13 Naga (VHF Network)
TV-5 Daet, Camarines Norte (VHF Network)
DYXX TV-2 Roxas (VHF Network)
DYJB TV-12 Iloilo (VHF Network)
DYTV TV-13 Cebu (VHF Network)
TV-12 Tacloban (VHF Network)
TV-13 Puerto Princesa (VHF Network)
DXZB TV-13 Zamboanga
TV-13 Ozamis (VHF Network)
DXCC TV-10 Cagayan De Oro (VHF Network)
DXTV TV-13 Davao (VHF Network)
TV-10 General Santos (VHF Network)
TV-10 Agusan Del Sur (VHF Network)
TV-8 Surigao Del Sur (VHF Network)
TV-13 Butuan (VHF Network)
b. IBC Cable Television Station:
SkyCable Gold and SkyCable Silver Metro Manila on Channel 15
Global Destiny Cable Makati City on Channel 11
SunVision Cable Taguig City on Channel 15
c. IBC Radio Stations Nationwide:
DWLW 675 kHz-Laoag
DWDW 1017 kHz-Dagupan
DWNW 756 kHz-Naga
DWGW 684 kHz-Legaspi
DYRG 1251 kHz-Kalibo, Aklan
DYJJ 1287 kHz-Roxas
DYBQ 981 kHz-Iloilo
DXAM 1278 kHz-Maramag, Bukidnon
DXWG 855 kHz-Iligan

6. New Era Television (commonly known as Net 25) is the UHF Television network of Eagle Broadcasting Corporation (EBC), the broadcast division of the Philippine religious group, Iglesia ni Cristo. Founded at July 27, 1999, it supplements EBC’s national network of five AM stations and an FM station (DZEC Radyo Agila 1062 & DWDM 95.5 Manila with Radyo Agila Stations on: DZEL 1053 Lucena, DWIN 1080 Dagupan, DYFX 1305 Cebu, and DXED 1224 Davao) located at 887 Maligaya Bldg. II, EDSA, Diliman, Quezon City.
NET 25 boasts of the Philippines’ first trilon TV tower that soars to 907 feet above sea level. NET 25 also has an all-digital production facility complete with studios and editing suites for in-house and post-productions.
It is on Channel 25 on terrestrial TV and is carried by major cable operators in the country led by Skycable Gold & Silver and Destiny Cable. NET 25 reaches TV audiences on the East Coast, United States and Hawaii and the whole of Asia including Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China as well as Australia.

7. GMA New Media Inc.,(GMA-NMi) established in 2000 by the GMA Network, placed its bet on converging technologies and developed a business out of enabling different media such as Internet, mobile phones, radio and TV to speak to one another. It produces interactive brands in GMA shows and fully interactive TV show on free TV. The company also actively engages in web development and creative services.
GMA New Media, Inc. provides interactivity to all media assets of GMA Network, Inc. such as its television programs, radio stations, websites and possibly UHF and cable TV. Through its subsidiary Digital Kitchen, Inc., GMA-NMi offers end-to-end broadcast solutions and corporate software solutions, using converging technologies and innovative strategies that guarantee results.
GMA New Media also provided election updates and information through text messages, according to Abrogar, while Rufino said INQ7 would serve as the Internet arm that would provide updates to overseas Filipino workers.

8. SBN (Southern Broadcasting Network) began operations in 1970 as single proprietor with its first AM station in the southern city of Davao. SBN Manila is the first UHF TV Station in Manila began in May,1992. SBN Studios are located at 22nd floor, Strata 2000 Bldg, F. Ortigas Jr. Road (formerly Emerald Ave.), Ortigas Center, Pasig City, Philippines. SBN currently operates the following broadcast stations:
a. Television Stations:
DWCP-TV 21 Manila (UHF Network)
DWJP-TV 21 Legaspi (UHF Network)
DYLP-TV 5 Bacolod (VHF Network)
DYCP-TV 6 Cebu (VHF Network)
DYJP-TV 22 Tacloban (UHF Network)
DXJP-TV 27 Zamboanga (UHF Network)
DXSS-TV 7 Davao (VHF Network)
b. On Cable Television Station:
SkyCable Gold and Silver Metro Manila on Channel 16
Global Destiny Cable Makati City on Channel 95
SunVision Cable Taguig City on Channel 21
c. SBN Mom’s Radio Stations:
DWSN-FM 97.9 MHz-Laoag
DWIS-FM 98.9 MHz-Vigan
DZMC-FM 91.1 MHz-Tarlac
DYCP-FM 90.3 MHz-Bacolod
DYAP-FM 88.3 MHz-Cebu
DYJP-FM 101.5 MHz-Tacloban
DXJP-FM 101.9 MHz-Zamboanga
DXNY-FM 107.9 MHz-Cagayan De Oro

9. Quality TeleVision (QTV) is the VHF Television network owned by ZOE Broadcasting Network of Eddie Villanueva and currently operated by GMA Network. The station was formally known as ZOE-TV 11. It was renamed QTV-11 after GMA Network and ZOE-TV entered to an agreement for leasing the entire TV airtime block of the station. The station was relaunched on November 11, 2005 QTV Channel 11 airs a lineup geared mostly towards women and women’s concerns.
The TV station started way back 1960s. It was established by Manila Broadcasting Co. naming MBC-11. But in 1972, MBC-11 forced to close due to Martial Law. After 26 years, Channel 11 was revived with a joint venture of the influential religious groups El Shaddai headed by Mike Velarde and Jesus Is Lord Movement headed by Eddie Villanueva in mid 1990s.
QTV Stations Nationwide
a. On Free TV
DZOE TV-11 Manila
DWDB TV-27 Manila
DZLS TV-27 Laoag
DWRA TV-24 Baguio
DWNJ TV-28 Naga
DWCW TV-27 Legaspi
DYMK TV-28 Iloilo
DYLS TV-27 Cebu
DXMJ TV-21 Zamboanga
DXNL TV-27 Cagayan De Oro
DXRA TV-27 Davao
b. On Radio:
DZLV 1458 kHz CALABARZON (signal is very weak in most parts of Metro Manila)
c. On Cable
SkyCable Gold and SkyCable Silver Metro Manila channel 11 (channel 19 in CAMANAVA area)
Global Destiny Cable Makati City on channel 16
SunVision Cable Taguig City on Channel 63

10. RPN, Radio Philippines Network (RPN 9) is a Philippines flagship VHF television network of the Government Communications Group headed by the Press Secretary.
RPN launched in the late 1960s as Kanlaon Broadcasting System, under Roberto S. Benedicto. Kanlaon is a volcano in the Philippine island of Negros, the home province of Mr. Benedicto. After the late President Ferdinand Marcos sequestered the rights of CBN-9 of the late Eugenio Lopez, Sr., he awarded the Channel 9 frequency through a Presidential Decree. After the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, all of the stocks and assets of RPN-9, IBC-13 and BBC-2 were sequestered by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG). President Corazon Aquino awarded BBC-2 through an executive order to ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation headed by the late Eugenio Lopez, Jr.. RPN-9 and IBC-13 assets and equipments were turned over to the Government Communications Group. There were plans to auction the TV frequency rights currently in use by RPN-9 and IBC-13 in the future.
a. RPN TV Stations Nationwide:
DZKB-TV 9 Manila
DZRB-TV 12 Baguio
DWKI-TV 10 Iriga
DYKB-TV 8 Bacolod
DYKC-TV 9 Cebu
DXXX-TV 5 Zamboanga
DXKO-TV 5 Cagayan De Oro
DXWW-TV 9 Davao
b. RPN Seen on CABLE TV Station Special:
SkyCable Gold and Silver Metro Manila Channel 14
Global Destiny Cable on Makati City Channel 14
Sun Cable Silver CAMANAVA Area on Channel 14
Sun Cable Silver RIZAL Antipolo City on Channel 14
SunVision Cable on Taguig City Channel 15
c. RPN TV Relay Stations:
TV-7 Bayombong
TV-2 Legaspi
DYKW-TV 6 San Jose, Antique
DYSC-TV 4 Bagacay, Iloilo
DYSC-TV 4 Caluya, Antique
TV-5 Puerto Princesa
TV-8 Dumaguete
TV-5 Tacloban
TV-5 Pagadian
TV-10 Cotabato
TV-7 General Santos
TV-12 Butuan
TV-4 Surigao
TV-9 Jolo, Sulu
d. Radyo Ronda Stations Nationwide:
DZRL 639 kHz-Batac, Ilocos Norte
DZBS 1368 kHz-Baguio
DZTG 621 kHz-Tuguegarao
DZKI 1332 kHz-Iriga
DYKB 1404 kHz-Bacolod
DYKW 936 kHz-Binalbagan, Negros Occidental
DYKC 675 kHz-Cebu
DXXX 1008 kHz-Zamboanga
DXKP 1377 kHz-Pagadian
DXKD 1053 kHz-Dipolog
DXKO 1368 kHz-Cagayan De Oro
DXKT 1071 kHz-Davao
DXDX 693 kHz-General Santos
DXKS 1080 kHz-Surigao

11. RJTV 29 is a UHF, free to air television channel, owned and operated by Rajah Broadcasting Network, inc. RJTV 29 broadcast in the greater Metro Manila area, and is on a ‘must carry basis’ on cable service providers. RJTV 29 began its test broadcast in June 1994, with station produced programming which was entertaining mix of music oriented shows, local news, talk show, and the very first local Home TV Shopping program.
In 1995, RJTV 29 went into niche programming and timeless television series, shopping and animation programs for children. At the time, the target market was kids during the day, and baby boomers at night. In 1997, due to the emergence of UHF competitors such as Studio 23 and CTV 31, RJTV 29 went form traditional TV programming to specialized programs such as direct response companies and Religious sectors. RJTV 29 recognized the advent of specialized television – niche markets that identify specific needs of focused sectors. RBN is located at Ventures I Bldg., Makati Ave. cor. Gen. Luna St. Makati City and at the 3/F Save-A-Lot Mall 2284 Pasong Tamo Ext., Makati City. With transmitter is located at Sitio Halang, Brgy. San Roque, Purok 19, San Lorenzo Ruiz St., Antipolo City. In addition, Rajah Broadcasting Network, Inc. also owns and operates 10 radio stations nationwide in the following cities. – Manila (2), Cebu, Davao, Baguio, Cagayan De Oro, Tuguegarao, Iloilo, Bacolod, and Iligan.
List of RJ stations
a. TV Stations:
DZRJ-TV 29 Manila
DWRJ-TV 9 Tuguegarao
DYNJ-TV 40 Iloilo
DYRJ-TV 33 Cebu
DXRJ-TV 31 Cagayan De Oro
DXDJ-TV 23 Davao
b. AM Stations:
DZRJ-AM 810 kHz-Manila
DXRJ-AM 1476 kHz-Iligan
c. FM Stations:
DZRJ-FM 100.3 MHz-Manila
DWRJ-FM 96.5 MHz-Tugegarao
DWDJ-FM 91.1 MHz-Baguio
DYNJ-FM 98.3 MHz-Iloilo
DYFJ-FM 99.9 MHz-Bacolod
DYRJ-FM 100.3 MHz-Cebu
DXRJ-FM 88.5 MHz-Cagayan De Oro
DXDJ-FM 100.3 MHz-Davao
d. Cable TV Special METRO MANILA, Camanava & Rizal Station:
SkyCable Gold and SkyCable Silver Metro Manila Channel 19
Global Destiny Cable Makati City Channel 79
SUN CABLE Silver Channel 65
SUN CABLE Silver CAMANAVA Area Channel 53
SUN CABLE Silver RIZAL Antipolo City Channel 60
e. Cable TV Special Provincal Areas Station:
SkyCable Baguio City Channel 45
SkyCable Cebu Channel 6
SkyCable Leyte channel 23
Colorview Cable CATV Zambales Channel 40
Colorview Cable CATV La Union Channel 38
SkyCable Dagupan City Channel 44
SkyCable Camarines Sur Channel 06
SkyCable Albay Channel 6
SkyCable Isabela Channel 18

12. unTV Channel 37 is a UHF television channel in the Philippines operated by the Progressive Broadcasting Corporation (PBC), the same company that operates the NU 107 network of FM stations, with the standard for good taste in music amongst the youths. Owned and operated by the Progressive Broadcasting Corporation, DWNU 107.5FM was the brainchild of banker/ businessman Atom L. Henares, and radio veteran Mike N. Pedero.
It exposed a police rubout on November 7, 2005 when it became the only media company to cover a police rubout incident right in front of its broadcast building. UNTV’s footage became a vital evidence for a case filed on the Philippines’ Commission on Human Rights.
PBC Stations Nationwide
a. On free TV Station:
UNTV DWNU TV-37 Manila (UHF Network)
UNTV DYNY TV-40 Iloilo (UHF Network)
UNTV DYNU TV-41 Cebu (UHF Network)
UNTV DXNY TV-37 Cagayan De Oro (UHF Network)
UNTV DXNU TV-41 Davao (UHF Network)
b. On Radio Station:
DWNU 107.5 Manila
DYNY 107.9 Iloilo
DYNU 107.5 Cebu
DXNY 107.9 Cagayan De Oro
DXNU 107.5 Davao
DXUN 107.9 General Santos
c. On Cable Television Station Interactive:
SkyCable Gold and SkyCable Silver Metro Manila Channel 21
Global Destiny Cable on Makati City Channel 51
Cable Star
(UNTV 37 is Now Available Cable Cast through Cable Star – Iloilo Channel 67)

13. The Three Angels Broadcasting Network, or 3ABN for short, is an American television and radio network which primarily focuses on Christian programming.
The network’s sign on occurred on November 23, 1986, after two years of planning and construction of a satellite uplink site in Thompsonville, Illinois. Initially focusing on satellite broadcasting for the United States, 3ABN has since taken several affiliates on, which broadcast directly into television markets on VHF and UHF stations worldwide.
The network makes claim to a successful weekly program in Russia, begun in 1993. It also expanded into radio and satellite television in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East in approximately 1999-2000. The 3ABN radio network is growing rapidly in affiliates due to the FCC allowing for low power FM stations. The president of the network throughout its existence has been Danny Shelton, 54, who hosts the network’s flagship program, 3ABN Today. Shelton co-founded the ministry with his wife at the time, Linda Shelton. Danny and Linda Shelton were divorced in June 2004. Danny Shelton married Brandy Lynn Elswick, 33, on March 8, 2006 on the set of 3ABN Presents in a nonbroadcast ceremony.
Programming overall on the network is Christian and health oriented, and broadcasts 24 hours a day. The ministry is independently owned and operated.

14. Studio 23 is the UHF television network fully owned and managed by Amcara Broadcasting Network, Inc. an affiliate of ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation. Its main broadcast center is located at the Eugenio Lopez Communications Center (ABS-CBN Broadcast Center) located at Mother Ignacia St., Sgt. Esguerra Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.
Launched at October 12. 1996, Studio 23 up with foreign broadcast companies yet maintaining to
be a wholly owned subsidiary of its mother network, ABS-CBN.
May 1996, Studio 23 again closed deals with suppliers and distributors in exhibitions held at Los Angeles, California. These deals closed at the L.A. Screenings were for new products intended for the launch of the station in October the same year.

15. MTV Philippines or (Music Television Network Philippines) is MTV Networks’ Asia franchise in the Philippines. Its first incarnation was a partnership with ABS-CBN and IBC, where MTV was seen at certain hours on their UHF channel Studio 23. It also the partner of the GMA Network in broadcasting, advertisements and exchanging celebrities. MTV has since tied up with the Nation Broadcasting Corporation which is located at NBC Tower, Jacinta Bldg. II, EDSA Guadelupe, Makati City and at the MTV Studios at Unit C, The Fort Entertainment Center, Bonifacio Global City, Taguig City and is now currently a 24-hour UHF channel , seen in:
DZRU TV-41 Metro Manila
DYBC TV-44 Bacolod City
Channel 29 Cebu
Channel 29 Cagayan De Oro
Channel 29 Davao
NBC Radio Stations Nationwide:
a. Sonshine Radio Stations:
DZAR 1026 kHz-Manila
DWRI 819 kHz-Laoag
DZRD 981 kHz-Dagupan
DZYI 711 kHz-Ilagan, Isabela
DZYT 765 kHz-Tuguegarao
DWSI 864 kHz-Santiago
DWYI 1332 kHz-Cabanatuan
DWTT 1368 kHz-Tarlac
DZSP 864 kHz-San Pablo
DYCB 765 kHz-Cebu
DXYZ 963 kHz-Zamboanga
DXCL 1098 kHz-Cagayan De Oro
DXRB 873 kHz-Butuan
DXRD 711 kHz-Davao
DXBL 801 kHz-Bislig, Surigao Del Sur
DXRE 837 kHz-General Santos
DXRO 945 kHz-Cotabato
DXRI 837 kHz-Iligan
b. Rhythms Stations Nationwide:
DWRU 92.3 Manila
DZYB 102.3 Baguio
DZMC 91.1 Tarlac
DWJY 94.3 San Pablo
DZRB 95.9 Naga
DWMR 97.9 Legaspi
DYBC 102.3 Bacolod
DYNC 101.9 Cebu
DXTY 101.1 Zamboanga
DXRL 101.5 Cagayan De Oro
DXFM 101.9 Davao
DXOO 97.5 General Santos
DXRI 98.3 Iligan
DXEY 96.7 Butuan
Soon in: Baguio, Naga, Legaspi, Ilo, Dumaguete, Tacloban
Zamboanga, Cagayan De Oro, Iligan, Butuan

16. Citynet, a subsidiary of GMA Network, Citynet Channel 27 is the UHF television station owned and operated by GMA Network, Inc. The station became the first UHF TV station operated by a major radiotelevision network. It attempted to broadcast programming from the old Martial Law GMA 7 days.
Transmitting on a 30,000-watt power capacity with an effective radiated power of up to 60,000 watts, Citynet’s telecast on channel 27 covers the Greater Manila Area and its neighboring provinces in Bulacan, Laguna, and Cavite.
Launched at August 27, 1995, the station was later reformatted to a video music channel and was renamed EMC 27 (Entertainment Music Channel). In 1999, GMA Network and STAR Network entered a joint venture to launch a local version of Channel [V] in the Philippines. EMC was later renamed Channel [V] Philippines and started operations on December 15, 1999. Sometime in July 2001, Channel [V] Philippines shut down operations. Rumors said that the fate of Channel [V] Philippines has been murky since the announcement of the acquisition of a controlling stake in GMA Network by telecom giant PLDT was made. While GMA operated Channel [V] Philippines, the PLDT company Nation Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) runs rival music video network MTV Philippines. This in turn is a joint venture between MTV Asia and NBC involving a 24-hour terrestrial broadcast of MTV Asia over UHF Channel 41 (and piped to Philippine cable networks) and the development of more Philippine-oriented programming.
In 2005, GMA Network Inc. used again Citynet 27 to broadcast their new VHF channel QTV11 also in UHF Band partnership with ZOE Broadcasting Network Incorporated. QTV Channel 11 can be watched through Channel 11 in VHF Band with 100kw transmitter and in UHF Band with a more clearer but darker reception.
Citynet Stations:
DWDB TV 27 Manila
DYMK TV 28 Iloilo
DXNL TV 27 Cagayan de oro

Cable operators:
1. Beyond Cable
2. Global Destiny Cable

Cable distributors: Accion, Cable Boss, Solar Entertainment

DTH operators:
1. Dream Broadcasting System (Dream)
2. SkyCABLE is a Direct-To-Home Cable TV Subscription Service, established by the Lopez Group of Companies. SkyCABLE is the Leading Cable TV Company in the Philippines, they are serving almost all Major Cities in Metro Mania and have affiliates almost all-around the Philippines.

Satellite operators: Agila 2

Regulatory Agencies:
1. Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC): to developan integrated plan for a nationwide transmission system in accordance with national and international telecommunications services requirements, including-among others-relay of radio and television broadcasts, leased channel services, and data transmission.
2. National Telecommunication Commission (NTC): to exercise jurisdiction over the supervision, adjudication, and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country. It remains under the administrative supervision of th DOTC.
3. Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB): to approve or disapprove, delete objectionable portions from and/or prohibit the importation, exportation, production, copying, distribution, sale, lease exhibition and/or television broadcast of the motion pictures, television programmes, and publicity materials.
3. KBP – Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (self-regulatory body of the industry)

Laws, Regulations:
1. 1987 Constitution Section 24, Article II: “The state recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building.”
2. Republic Act (RA) August 10, 1963: 3846, An act providing for the regulation of radio stations and radio communications in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes.
3. Presidential Decree (PD) Number 1986 (created the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board [MTRCB] on 05 October 1985)
4. Presidential Decree (PD) Number 1987 (created the Videogram Regulatory Board [VRB] on 05 October 1985)
5. RA No. 9239 or the Optical Media Act was passed. It changed the VRB into the Optical Media Board (OMB)
6. RA 9171 or Muslim Radio Act, issued on 22 July 2002.

Special remarks: Muslim Radio Act granted the Muslim Development Multipurpose Cooperative a franchise to construct, install, establish, operate, and maintain radio broadcasting stations in the Philippines.

VIET NAM

Cộng Hòa Xã Hội Chủ Nghĩa Việt Nam
Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Head of State: President Tran Duc Luong
Head of Government: Prime Minister Phan Van Khai
Chairman, National Assembly: Nguyen Van An
Capital: Ha Noi
Type of Government: Socialist republic; a one-party centralized state that increasingly decentralizes administration and devolves decision-making power to the provinces
Next election: By second quarter 2006 (Communist Party)
By mid-2007 (National Assembly)
Land area: 330,363 sq.km
Population: 82,222 thousand (2003)
Language: Vietnamese
Religion: Buddhism, Christianity
Currency: Dong
US$ exchange rate on 1 December 2005: US$ 1 = 15.910 dong
GDP: US$ 39,021 million (2003) at current market prices
Major Industries: Agriculture, forestry, fishery, industrial construction
Major Exports: Crude oil, coal, chromium, tin, cements, woolen carpet, jute carpet, rich cinnamon, marine products
Major Imports: Motors, petroleum products, diesel oil, fertilizers
Vietnam’s capital is Hanoi. There are also four municipalities existing at provincial level: Can Tho, Da Nang, Hai Phong, and Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh). Ho Chi Minh City was formerly known as Saigon. The remainder of Vietnam consists of 59 provinces (see main article for more information).
Land boundaries: Total: 4,639 km. Border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km; China 1,281 km; AND Laos 2,130 km.

The country is approximately 331,688 square kilometres in area, which is slightly larger than New Mexico and slightly smaller than Germany. The topography consists of hills and densely forested mountains, with level land covering no more than 20 percent. Mountains account for 40 percent, hills 40 percent and forests 75 percent. The northern part of the country consists of highlands and the Red River Delta. Phan Xi Păng, located in Lào Cai province, is the highest mountain in Vietnam at 3,143 metres. The south is divided into coastal lowlands, Dai Truong Son (central mountains) with high plateaus, and the Mekong River Delta. The climate is tropical and monsoonal; humidity averages 84 percent throughout the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 120 to 300 centimetres (47 to 118 in), and annual temperatures vary between 5°C (41°F) and 37°C (99°F).

TELEVISION in Viet Nam

TV adspend: US$ 150 million (2005)
Total TV households: no data
TV penetration: 75%
Cable households: no data
Total Free-TV channels: 20
Terrestrial stations: National (or network) license:
In 1998, there were at least ten television broadcast stations plus 13 repeaters. In 1997, there were 3.57 million televisions.
1. VTV 1,
2. VTV 2,
3. VTV 3,
4. HTV-VN
Local/regional: VTV Khmer – Can Tho (a special channel in the Khmer language operating in Can Tho), and several regional services across Vietnam including Can Tho, Da Nang, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City and Hue.

Cable operators:
1. Saigontourist Cable TV Co. (SCTV)
2. Vietnam Cable TV

DTH operators: none

Satellite operators: none

Regulatory Agencies:
1. Ministry of Culture and Information
2. Hanoi Posts and Telecommunications

Laws, Regulations:
1. Law on Press and Mass Media
2. Decree 24/2000/ND-CP, July 31, 2000 (Item 1 Article 114 and Annex 1)
3. Decree 27/2003/ND-CP, March 19, 2003 (Item 26 Article 1 and Annex 1)

Special remarks:
– The Government shall not grant the licence to the Vietnamese broadcasting private sector, nor to foreign investors.
– The purpose of this policy is for social and cultural order, public safety, and national security.

 

14 responses to “ASEAN

  1. Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo

    Februari 7, 2008 at 5:19 pm

    Sekedar meluruskan informasi di atas mengenai patent2 saya selama ini. Semua atas nama saya pribadi dan bukan atas almamater di mana saya bekerja saat ini. Jadi tidak perlu khawatir, sayapun sadar semua yang harus kita pikirkan dan keluarkan tenaga selama ini, maka itu semua hak kita, termasuk patent2 saya selama ini.

    Lebih baik Indonesia mulai sadar akan kemampuan sendiri dan tidak tergantung pada budaya2 lain selama ini yang jelas menghancurkan pikiran dan waktu kita sehari2, serta akhirnya meluluhlantakkan budaya kita. Kembali ke budaya dan pikiran khas orang Indonesia adalah sumber dan awal kebaikan untuk bangsa ini. Mari kita lupakan budaya dan ritual sehari2 dari asing. Indonesia kaya akan sumber pemikiran baru untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan bangsa ini. Alam Indonesia adalah sumber ilham dan kebesaran bagi kita dan menguatkan imam jati diri kita daripada budaya dan ritual asing.

    Mari kita pelihara dan bangun bersama bangsa ini.

    Salam
    Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo

     
  2. Mila

    Februari 7, 2008 at 7:57 pm

    Maaf Pak, dan tentu koreksi Bapak membuat saya lebih berhati-hati dalam menulis ke depan. Saya hanya membaca sekilas bahwa persentase pembagian nilai sebuah barang/temuan yang dipatenkan itu menjadi milik alma mater sekian persen, jurusan sekian persen, penemu sekian persen. Saya lupa membaca di mana, tapi akan saya cari lagi sumber ini.

    Kritik saya hanya terhadap tiadanya insentif di negeri ini, bukan polemik atas ada-tiada anak cerdas yang bisa terus berkarya. Saya tahu betul bagaimana anggaran negara dirancang per tahun, dan bagaimana “dibuang” begitu saja untuk hal-hal yang tidak substantif apalagi yang konstruktif. Jepang dan banyak negara maju memberikan insentif tinggi untuk orang-orang cerdas, apapun ras dan latar belakangnya.

    Saya merasa terhormat sekali mendapat kunjungan dari orang yang saya kagumi (pemikiran dan langkah-langkahnya). Selamat terus berkarya, Pak.

     
  3. Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo

    Februari 9, 2008 at 12:28 am

    Ibu Mila,

    Mungkin bisa menjadi masukan baik untuk negara kita, setidaknya diri kita sendiri. Jepang sendiri saya kira tidak ingin kalah dan terpacu untuk menemukan hal2 baru yang jelas berguna utk manusia dan alamnya. Hal ini didukung oleh masyarakatnya yang selalu haus akan hal2 baru dan original. Dimana hal original ini nanti menjadi sumber daya intelektual negara ini, mis. patent.

    Praktek2 pengaturan patent juga tergantung instansi dan kesadaran sang peneliti. Saya pribadi kalau punya waktu sedikit saja, maka saya usahakan persiapkan dan submit patent sendiri hasil2 karya pribadi selama ini. Kita bisa submit patent sendiri dgn resiko biaya maintenance patent tahunan kita sendiri yang tanggung. Kalau tidak mau pusing, ada cara lain dengan menyerahkan urusan patent ke instansi kita dengan nama penemu tetap diri kita sendiri (ada beberapa patent saya pula dengan model ini), dimana biaya maintenance tahunan ditanggung pihak instansi dan royalti patent kita peroleh tergantung perjanjian dengan instansi (biasanya lebih dari 50%) bila patent digunakan oleh industri. Jadi hasil patentpun kita tetap menikmati cukup banyak dan tidak semua milik instansi. Kebetulan saya mempunyai dua tipe patent ini.

    Saya kira sangat beruntung kita mendapatkan fasilitas demikian pada saat kita tidak dibutuhkan di negeri sendiri, dimana fasilitas riset dan bebas mengembangkan pikiran kita, dan kita bisa menikmati hasil patent2 bila dipakai oleh industri. Kalau ada hasilnya ? Selama ini kami sekeluarga berikan utk beasiswa anak2, membantu sekolah, pengembangan dan penelitian budaya dan pemikiran asli Indonesia …. dll di Indonesia. Walau kecil2an mudah2an dapat bermanfaat utk orang banyak yah. Masih banyak usaha positif yang dapat kita lakukan untuk Indonesia, pada saat bangsa sendiri mencibirkan pada diri kita. Pasti ada jamannya ….

    Salam
    Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo
    http://www2.cr.chiba-u.jp/lab/jtetukoss/

     
  4. Mila

    Februari 9, 2008 at 1:22 pm

    Beruntung, Pak Josh, saya tahu memang Jepang adalah negara yang paling gemar memerdekakan pikiran liar manusia. Terbukti Jepang selalu menempatkan diri sebagai negara nomor 1 dalam urusan paten. Lihat di sini:
    http://www.allcountries.org/uscensus/1382_patents_by_country.html
    Untuk itu saya menulis soal kerjasama ASEAN-Jepang ini dalam kerangka “transfer tech” yang lebih konstruktif. Jepang tak boleh hanya menargetkan ASEAN sebagai satu pasar hasil inovasinya saja, tapi juga harus menularkan ilmunya.

    Semua orang (kawan, paman, guru, dll.) yang mengajarkan saya adalah orang-orang dengan “positive thinking” atas segala sesuatu. Frustasi (jangan dibaca sebagai “negative thinking” ya Pak), terkadang keluar saat melihat pilar institusi. Salah satunya adalah Kantor Dirjen Haki yang mengurus paten, yang kebetulan pernah saya kunjungi: sebuah kantor adminsitratif kosong melompong; tak ada insentif apapun. Mungkin karena kantor ini berada di bawah naungan departemen yang salah?

    Selama beberapa tahun terakhir berinteraksi dengan birokrasi dan anggaran negara tercinta ini, banyak sekali keheranan muncul. Saya tahu Japan Foundation di Indonesia punya beberapa proyek “tidak penting” bukan karena orang Jepangnya, tapi lebih pada beberapa birokrast di negeri ini yang doyan proyek “tidak penting”. Mungkin terlihat penting di atas kertas, namun implementasi di lapangan bisa bubar jalan, Pak.

    Saya melihat pelosok-pelosok daerah yang kaya tapi miskin, senang tapi susah. Atau mungkin ini ini “rich natural resources’ curse” seperti ucapan Stiglitz?

     
  5. Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo

    Februari 10, 2008 at 2:06 pm

    Bu Mila

    Transfer teknologi jangan diharapkan, teknologi harus kita buat sendiri. Nevermind dengan teknologi2 bangsa lain, kita harus buat teknologi yang cocok untuk bangsa ini dengan pikiran dan tangan kita. Budaya menunggu belas kasih orang (negara) lain pada diri kita harus kita buang jauh2. Prinsip saya, take pencil soon and open the world !

    Kemiskinan tidak akan bisa kita hilangkan kalau orang di dalamnya masih suka menjual kemiskinan sebagai komoditi. Orang atau badan lain yang tertarik dengan produk kemiskinan tsb tidak ada. Kita harus sadarkan mereka, bahwa kemiskinan berasal dari hati dan perilaku kita sendiri. Lebih baik tunjukkan dan mengasah kemampuan kita, daripada menawarkan komoditas kemiskinan tsb. Temperament miskin memang pada kenyataan kita temukan dari tingkat bawah hingga pejabat. Saya pribadi tidak tertarik dengan kemiskinan spt yang dibanggakan oleh mereka pada saat ke daerah2, tetapi saya lebih ingin tahu apa yang bisa mereka lakukan utk kebaikan kita bersama. Bila kita mengakui miskin, mengapa kita malah buang waktu sehari2 dengan ritual dan budaya2 asing. Alam kita memberikan banyak inovasi dan hint, tetapi sayang hati dan kepala telah dipenuhi dengan budaya lain (arab, eropa, amrik dll), dan waktu habis utk ritual asing pula. Waktu sebagai sumber daya tersendiri utk membangun bangsa ini, tetapi waktu habis percuma. Teknologi utk menolong manusia menjadi makmur, aman, manusiawi, beradab dan adil hanya dapat diciptakan konsistensi dan waktu yang banyak. Saya dalam sehari tidur 3-4 jam saja selama ini, apakah cukup ? belum cukup dan saya membutuhkan waktu lebih utk memikirkan dan menciptakan sesuatu untuk Ina dan dunia pada saat sebagian besar dari 250 juta penduduk Ina belum menyadari sumber daya waktu. Kemiskinan akan memberikan lubang bagi budaya (termasuk agama) asing utk mengeksploitasinya, akhirnya akan menghancurkan cara pikir, inovasi, dan budaya bangsa kita.

    Setelah proses reformasi, mudah2an secepatnya (target 20 tahun ke depan) ada proses dekulturisasi untuk menuju Indonesia modern dgn bernafaskan budaya asli Indonesia yang digerakkan oleh teknologi dan ilmu pengetahuan asli lahir dari orang Ina. Mulai saat itu orang akan sadar akan pentingnya penghargaan pada ciptaan diri kita sendiri, begitu pula dalam bentuk perlindungan HAKI.

    Hargai diri kita dulu, maka orang lain akan menghargai kita nanti.

    Salam
    Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo

    ps. Walau tidak ada hubungan langsung, silakan refer tulisan saya di bawah utk anak muda Ina dibidang remote sensing dan GIS. Semoga bermanfaat.

    ——
    Dear pak Soni, pak Fahmi dan rekan2

    Ide bagus, anak muda !!

    Jangan tunggu (nevermind) pemerintah, organisasi dan orang lain, cepat mulai
    dari diri kita sendiri. Tema riset dan konsistensi kita yang akan menarik
    orang lain dan pemerintah (lain) nantinya. Tunjukkan kebahagiaan kita
    melakukan riset tsb, maka orang (negara lain dan dunia) akan ikut bahagia
    dengan keberadaan kita.

    Pengagendaan riset ini yang kita harapkan, usaha nyata untuk kemajuan kita
    bersama. Pada saat rakyat bingung apa yang harus dilakukan terhadap
    permasalahan2 yang mendera dan pemerintah tidak mempunyai kebijakan yang
    jelas, maka ini tugas (sumbangsih bidang RSGIS) kita untuk memberikan
    sesuatu. Tidak perlu berharap dan menunggu (menanti ?) dari pemerintah, mari
    kita usahakan dari diri kita sendiri. Kalau ada masalah danapun sebagai
    permasalahan klasik, tunjukkan dulu kemampuan kita dan selalu mengasahnya,
    jangan malah menawarkan kemiskinan (ketidakpunyaan) ke orang lain sebagai
    alasan tidak bisa (malas ?) riset. Contoh selama ini ide pembuatan database
    GIS dan sudah disiapkan fasilitasnya, tapi tidak ada perkembangan sama
    sekali, kita malas dan tak ada motivation !

    RSGIS tidak akan lepas dari daerah dimana kita akan mengaplikasikannya dan
    perangkat2 yang dibutuhkan. Tema RSGIS banyak di seluruh Ina, saya
    pribadipun kewalahan menerima tawaran untuk mengerjakan hingga daerah2 yang
    sejak otonomi bergulir mereka mulai menggeliat dan berlomba2 utk mengurus
    diri sendiri. Dari data daerah2 yang berkembang di Ina saat ini, banyak
    sekali tema riset maupun bentuk2 penerapannya nanti. Daerah kita sangat khas
    (unik ?) dan tidak bisa kita menerapkan begitu saja manual2 RS dan GIS yang
    ada begitu saja. Pemilahan tema sebagai murni ilmu pengetahuan (Universitas)
    maupun aplikasinya (pemda, lembaga riset dll) dapat dilakuan.
    Pengklasifikasiannya sebaiknya disesuaikan dengan hasil pemikiran dan
    kebutuhan kita, tidak perlu meniru2 cara pikir orang asing yang belum tentu
    jelas dan bermanfaat utk kita. Merefer OK, meniru jangan.

    Selama ini kita tergantung pada satelit2 asing untuk memonitor tanah air.
    Suatu hal lucu, bagai kita mau merias dan menata diri sendiri tapi harus
    selalu pinjam kaca orang lain. Pengembangan sensor dan peralatan2 RSGIS juga
    sangat perlu dilakukan kita bersama. Pada saat kita bingung dengan banyaknya
    dana yang diserap utk bencana, pemilu dan urusan lain (korupsi sudah menjadi
    resmi di Ina ?) Jangan menunggu dan tergantung pemerintah ! Umur kita hidup
    rata2 hanya sekitar 65 tahun bagi orang Indonesia, banyak waktu digunakan
    untuk menunggu (mungkin karena nenek moyang kita sebenarnya petani, bukan
    pelaut). Kalau pemerintah tidak bisa dan takut (beresiko) membuat satelit,
    kenapa tangan kita sendiri tidak memulai membuat satelit sendiri. Ini
    prinsip saya pribadi, segala sesuatu yang dapat dihitung dengan angka, pasti
    bisa kita realisasikan. Mungkin pak Ketut yg saat ini berada di tempat saya
    utk riset, dan pak Soni tahu, kita akan berikan yang terbaik utk Ina sebaik
    mungkin, dimana Ina tanpa perlu mengeluarkan dana sepeserpun. Selama di Ina
    tidak bisa dibuat, di luar banyak orang yang dapat membantu dan membutuhkan
    keberadaan kita (orang Ina). Perangkat2 yang dibuat oleh tangan atas dasar
    pikiran orang Ina harus kita buat sendiri dan tunjukkan ke dunia kalau kita
    mampu. Mari kita isi kegiatan di universitas2 Ina dengan pengembangan
    perangkat2 RS GIS pula. Mudah2an tahun ini ada dua research center dan
    jurusan baru yang berhubungan dengan RSGIS lahir di Ina dan bisa
    merealisasikan idea2 saya selama ini, agar semakin banyak anak2 muda yang
    sadar akan diri, orang lain dan lingkungannya lewat RSGIS.

    Bagi anak muda, umur adalah sumber daya sendiri, semakin cepat atau muda
    dapat menguasai teknologi sendiri dan Anda sekalian kuat, maka bangsa kita
    akan semakin cepat utk menjadi besar (makmur) untuk rakyat dan kedamaian
    dunia. Khususnya anak muda harus cepat tanggap memberikan inovasi2 baru dan
    lepas dari ikatan sehari2 yang tidak efisien dan menghambat perkembangan
    dirinya sendiri. Jangan buang waktu, dan mari kita isi dengan memikirkan dan
    kegiatan nyata untuk kebahagiaan orang lain, niscaya kita akan dibahagiakan
    oleh orang dan alam kita, walau hanya menggunakan tool sederhana kita yang
    disebut RSGIS.

    Informasi :
    Bagi rekan2 yang mempunyai waktu pada tanggal 25-30 Mei 2008 akan diadakan
    Japan Planetary and Geoscience Union Conference di Makuhari Messe, Chiba
    yang biasa dihadiri 4000 orang. Kebetulan saya diminta memberikan Invited
    Talk dengan judul ‘Small SAR Satellite Proposal’ di sesi Frontiers in Space
    Sciences using Small Satellites. Silakan untuk menghadiri dan mudah2an dapat
    memberikan inspirasi utk pengembangan sensor2 baru yang lahir dari orang2
    Ina, khususnya Anda yang muda2.

    Salam hangat selalu dan selamat berweekend !
    Josh

     
  6. Mila

    Februari 10, 2008 at 6:52 pm

    :)))))
    Tentu! Tentu!
    “Tirani oleh orang miskin” ini memang cuma ditanamkan orang bule sana ke kepala kita. Saya juga tidak kagum dengan adanya deputi khusus kemiskinan di Bappenas (deputinya dosen saya yang “always living with silver spoon”; sori Pak, ini omongan kawan-kawan di kelas). Kampanye eradikasi kemiskinan juga adalah satu upaya propaganda “untuk terus memiskinkan yang miskin” (sekali lagi, bentuk kampanye apapun jangan dilihat an sich untuk memerangi sesuatu hal, there’s always a catch in it!).

    Kembali ke masalah teknologi (dan paten sebagai insentifnya), saya tetap berpikir perlu ada transfer teknologi sebagai pemicu. Anak saya di rumah harus diajak berpikir inovatif, bahkan sejak awal saya telah perkenalkan beragam keajaiban dunia, mereka juga sudah bisa membaca peta dunia yang saya tempel di samping TV. Seluruh rahasia dunia dalam DVD (kartun “Kakek Pengetahuan” dalam bahasa Indonesia, guess what, made in Japan!) Pengaturan satelit (dan apa itu satelit yang ada di dunia) adalah satu topik yang saya gali datanya dari internet sejak 1995, terakhir update saya baca di http://www.lyngsat.com untuk memetakan berapa banyak satelit yang baru ataupun yang sudah “meninggal”. Tak banyak literatur dalam negerinya, bukan?

    Tapi tidak banyak orang yang beruntung seperti saya dan Pak Josh, bukan? Saya tahu di beberapa universitas di luar Jawa akses informasi sangat sangat minim kalau mau dibilang tak ada sama sekali. Cara berpikir “orang pusat” yang tak esensial, tidak konstruktif dalam membangun infrastruktur informasi. Project-seeker, istilahnya, karena mereka mementingkan yang penting ada proyek. Ya sudahlah, preskripsi institusi adalah obat ekonomi terbaru (setelah kebijakan fiskal dan moneter tak lagi berfungsi karena, ya institusinya korupsi!)

    Salah satu preskripsi untuk institusi yang sakit ya pendidikan. Chicken and egg… uang pendidikannya sampai tidak ke masyarakat?

    Ini juga cuma curhat ya Pak. Try to keep up with the crazy world outside is a crazy effort itself.

     
  7. Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo

    Februari 11, 2008 at 12:04 am

    Bu Mila

    Maaf saya tidak percaya dengan keberuntungan, semua yang saya dapat adalah hasil usaha selama ini. Kalau saya beruntung, berarti saya diam dan semua dapat tanpa saya harus tidur hanya 2-3 jam sehari, makan 1-2 kali sehari, hampir tidak pernah ambil liburan, pengorbanan keluarga dll.

    Keinginan transfer teknologi hanya keinginan negara2 berkembang dan miskin. Tapi pada kenyataannya negara maju mau transfer teknologi ? tidak. Kebetulan saya pegawai negeri di sini, setidaknya tahu sedikit banyak aturan pemindahan know-how alias teknologi dan ilmu pengetahuan yang selalu direvisi setiap beberapa bulan sesuai perubahan kondisi politik dunia. Perpindahan teknologi, berarti pula perpindahan nilai investasi negara tsb, dimana investasi tersebut adalah pajak riil dari rakyat negara (maju) tersebut. Apakah mereka rela bila transfer teknologi dilakukan ? Kenyataannya tidak dan banyak sekali artikel2 koran di sini yang melibatkan peneliti2 selama ini yang secara tidak sengaja memindahkan sesuatu ke luar negeri, dan pernah bayangkan bentuk punishmentnya ? penurunan pangkat dan gaji hingga pecat. Jadi peneliti di negara (maju) terkadang sangat hati2 dalam melakukan hal ini, jadi jangan heran bila di beberapa proyek besar saya selalu diawasi dan ada interview khusus mengenai aliran dan pemakaian dana. Contoh riil saja, satelit saya kenapa susah mendapatkan ijin utk meluncurkan dengan missile rusia yang jelas murah atau 1/10 bila menggunakan roket Jepang ? Jawabnya tidak boleh ada transfer teknologi ke negara lain.

    Hal di atas adalah salah satu permasalahan nyata dan tidak bisa dipungkiri harus dihadapi oleh peneliti2 spt saya pribadi. Lalu bagaimana agar bisa tranfer teknologi ke Ina ? Biarkan saya sendiri yang tahu dan keep secret in my head. Silakan diikuti perkembangan riset saya dan silakan pelajari nantinya. Banyak hint di setiap langkah saya utk kemajuan tanah air, agar anak cucu bangsa yang merasakannya nanti.

    Salam
    Josh

     
  8. Mila

    Februari 11, 2008 at 8:52 pm

    * s p e e c h l e s s *

    Atas informasi ini, tadi siang saya bisa memberikan komentar ke kawan yang akan meluncurkan buku beliau yang mengutip sedikit tentang “transfer teknologi”. Never ever gonna happen, not in a million years, so let’s work on it ourselves!

    Terima kasih Pak Josh, saya pikir memang teknologi adalah resep untuk maju (dan jadi dapur utama “economic animal”). Teknologi adalah menyederhanakan, mempercepat, dan memudahkan langkah kerja setiap orang, setiap entitas usaha. Jadi jika Indonesia belum bisa mencari tahu bagaimana “memudahkan” hidup, mungkin karena memang belum tahu caranya ya Pak? Atau karena nrimo terima saja yang sudah dimiliki sekarang? Yang paling ekstrem adalah yang apatis, EGP lalu larinya menyalahkan dunia… dan terus terang yang seperti ini banyak di Jakarta :))))

    Btw, jika ada buku-buku Pak Josh yang bisa disebarluaskan di sini, bolehlah dijual di toko buku online http://www.inibuku.com yang kami rintis sejak 2002 (just a lil’ effort to spread Indonesian books). Tentu jangan dalam bahasa Jepang ya Pak LOL maaf perlu waktu untuk belajar bahasa lagi…

    Hajimemashite!
    (cuma ini yang saya tahu sejak tahun 1991)

     
  9. Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo

    Februari 12, 2008 at 12:14 am

    Dear Ibu Mila,

    Teknologi tidak lebih sebagai tool utk memberikan kebahagiaan manusia. Terkadang saya pikir dan rasakan, kita tidak perlu mengejar dan terperangah terhadap hasil pemikiran (teknologi, budaya…hingga agama) orang asing. Tidak perlu memaksakan sesuatu yang memang tidak cocok dengan Indonesian people and their life style. Porak porandanya Indonesia saat ini harus secepatnya kita akui sebagai akibat ‘keramahan’ orang Indonesia terhadap budaya asing. Terkadang hal lucu terjadi di masyarakat kita, dimana pada saat menemui permasalahan baik kecil maupun besar (nasional), penyelesaiannya adalah doa bersama dengan gaya orang dan budaya asing, (betul !) bahkan menyalahkan orang atau pihak lain. Mengapa tidak melihat kaki (diri) sendiri ? Saya kira faktor ketakutan telah tertanam dengan baik turun temurun di hati orang Ina, sehingga mereka susah utk lepas dari budaya tersebut. Kebetulan saya mengumpulkan serpihan2 budaya Ina, kasihan bangsa ini, banyak kebanggaan semu dan kerusakan batin yang telah menganga. Jangankan berpikir teknologi, berpikir utk dirinya saja sudah tidak ada waktunya. Teknologi harus disusun rapi dari waktu ke waktu, membutuhkan ketenangan berpikir, kebesaran hati melihat alam dll. Saya sering ke daerah2 di Ina, banyak hal menarik dan dapat menjadi inspirasi, tetapi setiap berkunjung ke tempat yang sama pasti kita dapatkan degradasi, bukannya perbaikan. Mungkin semua ini proses, manusia tidak akan jera kalau tidak pernah merasakan sakit akibat ulahnya. Negara manapun sama, mungkin Indonesia perlu terjadi bencana lebih besar lagi utk mengingatkan kebesaran alam.

    Perihal buku2 saya dapat dibaca di http://erc.pandhitopanji-f.org/books.html Kebetulan kami sekeluarga mempunyai yayasan kecil utk memberikan beasiswa, pendidikan dengan membuat sekolah, riset dll melalui hasil usaha kami sekeluarga. Buku lainnya mudah2an dalam waktu dekat dapat kami terbitkan kembali sambil menunggu gudang baru rumah kami. Kebetulan isteri saya juga mempersiapkan buku2nya tentang urban history kota2 Ina, bersama saya pula. Sementara kami tulis dalam bhs Ina agar masyarakat Ina lebih cepat tahu daripada orang asing, nanti akan kami terbitkan dalam bhs Inggris pula.

    Informasi mengenai riset saya : http://www2.cr.chiba-u.jp/lab/jtetukoss/ dan karya2 isteri saya http://www.pandhitopanji-f.org/arc/studio.htm Karya2nya pasti Anda pernah melihatnya di Jakarta atau kota lain. Mudah2an semakin banyak karyanya menghiasi Ina dan dunia.

    Salam
    Josh

     
  10. Mila

    Februari 12, 2008 at 2:17 am

    Confirmed, you are the man who has less sleep… :)

    And yes, beautiful work of art. Best regard to Ibu Innes.

    Saya harus tidur juga, panjang hari esok. Look up your papers morrow. Type to you tomorrow, too, for I shall have some insights (at the moment of typing, I can only think of bantal guling hehe)

     
  11. Mila

    Februari 12, 2008 at 5:56 pm

    * Ngintip sedikit riset Pak Josh *

    Bukan disiplin ilmu saya, dan satelit komunikasi yang saya pelajari lebih ke lingkup bisnisnya.

    FYI, sharing sedikit Pak. Barusan saya melihat-lihat buku wajib anak SD sejak kelas 1 hingga 6, salah satunya tentang teknologi informasi komunikasi. MENYEDIHKAN! Kelas 1 hingga 6 melulu belajar HOW TO PAINT! SMP pun hanya diperkenalkan satu hal: how to use yahoo mail (yang bisa dibaca di FAQ yahoo sendiri hahaha!).

    Kurikulum terbaru ini tidak memperkenalkan platform-platform lain apalagi yang lebih rumit: konvergensi.
    Kurikulum ini membuat anak-anak jadi robot? Kasihan.

    Kalau matematika, dibolak-balik setiap tahun tetap sama (kurang satu, ditambah satu; kali dua, bagi dua), tapi teknologi informasi komunikasi (TIK, istilah birokrasinya) adalah dinamis. Filosofi ini mungkin tidak sampai ke kepala perumus kurikulum yang pernah dididik oleh guru robot pula? Mungkin…

    Seharusnya dibedakan anak urban dan non-urban, karena anak SMP kelas 9 di kota (jaman kita dulu ya namanya kelas 3 SMP) dihujani demikian banyak cara berkomunikasi. Mulai bahasa asap, kantor pos dan seterusnya tidak diperkenalkan sama sekali. Bagaimana di setiap titik, orang terus berpikir untuk mencari yang baru.

    Saya pikir TIK adalah mengerti mulai sejarah hingga fungsi dari inovasi setiap generasi; bagaimana ada platform yang tidak lagi dikenal (rekaman dalam Laser Disc, pager, telex, dst.) dan ada yang masih berkembang seperti telepon selular dan satelit. Bagaimana layanan dan model bisnisnya pun turut berubah seiring dengan kreativitas manusia.

    That’s it ya Pak. Kreativitas. Kurang merdeka pikiran rakyat negeri ini ya? Atau kurang gigih memerdekakan diri? Whatever.

    Salut untuk riset Pak Josh. Jangan pernah berhenti, Pak.
    :)))))

     
  12. Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo

    Februari 13, 2008 at 12:17 am

    Ibu Mila

    Masalah pendidikan untuk anak memang sangat pelik sebagai orang tua. Mungkin sama orang tua saya (lihat http://www.pandhitopanji-f.org/jtetukoss/families.htm) memikirkan dan memilih pendidikan terbaik untuk saya dan adik2 saya dulu walau di desa. Hal ini sama khawatirnya saya untuk memberikan pendidikan yg terbaik untuk anak saya sendiri (lihat http://www.pandhitopanji-f.org/jpandhitoph/index.html).

    Bagi saya dan isteri pendidikan dasar merupakan pendidikan yang paling penting dan harus didapat dengan senang. Kalau belum bisa baca, berhitung dll, memang sebaiknya jangan dipaksakan. Pasti ada waktu tuning yang menjadi titik meroketnya talent sang anak. Saya sendiripun kurang pandai dalam membaca sejak kecil (refer http://www.pandhitopanji-f.org/jtetukoss/documents/figures/20070102KompasSosok.jpg). Syukur sekarang anak saya sedikit enjoy utk menerangkan segala sesuatu, spt masalah angkasa luar (lihat artikel click line terbawah http://www.pandhitopanji-f.org/jpandhitoph/index.html) dengan gambarnya yang lucu.

    Pendidikan sebaiknya diberikan dengan pendekatan fenomenal dan belajar alur bernalar (berpikir). Hal ini menjadi kelemahan hampir kebanyakan siswa Ina. Mereka sangat pandai menghafal segala hal, tapi tidak tahu mengapa menjadi demikian. Pada saat mereka masuk ke perguruan di luar negeri biasanya menjadi lebih pandai dengan mahasiswa asing pada tingkat2 awal. Tapi setelah tingkat advance biasanya keteteran karena tidak bisa bernalar, ini nanti berakibat pada keterlambatan pada proses riset. Teknologi tidak bisa dilahirkan dengan hafalan, karena content dari hafalan biasanya ilmu yang sudah mati (standard). Sedangkan fenomena di alam dan masyarakat setiap saat berubah, dan kita harus mengikutinya dengan berpikir dan beranalisa. Menciptakan manusia yang bisa menyesuaikan dengan alam di mana saja berada dengan cara berpikir dan beranalisa ini yang perlu dibentuk oleh pendidikan kita. Memang sulit dengan kondisi ina yang banyak hal tidak bernalar, tapi mau tidak mau harus dilakukan perbaikan ini kalau kita ingin maju dan bersaing, bahkan utk menjadi top di dunia di segala hal.

    Salam
    Josh

     
  13. deta

    September 8, 2009 at 3:42 pm

    ;-)

     
  14. aqil

    September 19, 2011 at 7:14 pm

    bu mila ap jawaban nya soalnya ini:negara mana di asean tenggara/asean yang paling tertinggal

     

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s

 
Ikuti

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Bergabunglah dengan 259 pengikut lainnya.

%d bloggers like this: