RSS

Arsip Bulanan: Oktober 2007

Pemilu 2009, KPU minta Rp 47,9 trilyun?


oleh Amelia Day

Fantastis. Dengan angka yang sama, Indonesia sudah bisa memiliki 15 Airbus A380. Dengan angka yang sama, sudah terbangun jembatan Jawa-Sumatera. Demi sebuah “pengesahan”, angka ini adalah peningkatan sepuluh kali lipat dari bujet Pemilu 2004.*

Saya dan Pemilu 2004: Bagaimana Pemilu 2009?

Dengan rasa bangga bisa mengambil bagian dalam Pemilu 2004, waktu itu saya mengambil kartu pemilih saya di kelurahan. Sang petugas di kelurahan menyatakan “Ibu, nanti Pilkada Jakarta Ibu cukup berikan kartu pemilih ini.” Nyatanya, saya hampir tak bisa mencoblos di Pilkada DKI Jakarta karena tak terdaftar. Sosialisasi tak ada tentang perubahan kartu ini. Untungnya tindakan proaktif Ketua RT saya telah menyelamatkan hak saya sebagai warga Jakarta.

Hari ini terlintas pertanyaan di kepala saya, mengapa angka penyelenggaraan Pemilu ataupun Pilkada terus meningkat fantastis dari waktu ke waktu. Adakah komputer baru yang harus dibeli setiap 5 tahun? Tak bisakah membeli hard disk saja yang harganya kian murah? Ataukah memang komputer 5 tahun lalu itu sudah dilelang ke pihak luar, sebagai protap inventarisasi barang di birokrasi? Sesungguhnya memang biaya perjalanan ke 33 provinsi untuk 100 orang hanya merupakan satu persen dari biaya pengadaan barang.

Skala Prioritas KPU: Gunakan Metode Pengambilan Keputusan

Saya tak ingin mengutik masalah legal atau politis dari entitas KPU. Yang ingin saya kritisi di sini adalah skala prioritas kerja KPU. Program kerja beserta pos anggarannya bisa diurut, atau dipelajari dari anggota KPU periode sebelumnya.

Untuk membantu menentukan skala prioritas kerja, ada beberapa perangkat pengambilan keputusan yang telah digunakan secara umum di berbagai belahan dunia.

  • AHP (analytic hierarchy process) © Dr Thomas L. Saaty
  • Scenario-Based Decision Making – Technique
    © Dr. Terry J. van der Werff, CMC
  • Definition of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM), yang juga meliputi Multi-Attribute Global Inference of Quality (MAGIQ), Goal Programming, ELECTRE (Outranking), PROMETHÉE (Outranking), Data Envelopment Analysis, dan The Evidential Reasoning Approach

Khusus untuk Scenario-based Decision Making – Technique, pertanyaan “what if” harus dijawab dengan membuat sebuah diagram alur kerja (flow chart) untuk memprediksi segala kemungkinan jika prioritas 1, 2, 3 dan seterusnya ditempatkan dalam matriks-matriks kemungkinan. Promethee (outranking) juga menggunakan langkah yang sama ditambah dengan pemberian kategori untuk setiap langkah. Satu waktu nanti saya akan melakukan simulasi pembuatan anggaran KPU ini dengan metode-metode lain. Hari ini saya hanya ingin mengingatkan kita semua bahwa apapun program kerja atau biayanya, semua bisa disiapkan dengan skala prioritas.

Semua metode-metode pengambilan keputusan ini mempunyai kelebihan dan kelemahan masing-masing. Membuat matriks kerja dan melakukan penghitungan skala prioritas secara sistematis membantu semua pemangku kepentingan di negeri ini mengerti mengapa proposal anggaran KPU membengkak seperti itu. Disiplin anggaran dengan mekanisme pertanggungjawabannya tidaklah cukup. KPU, baik anggota ataupun sekretariat, harus mengkaji “pesta demokrasi” dalam skala prioritas (tentu kategori “efisiensi” menempati bobot tertinggi).

Salut kepada Pak Wapres sebagai “manajer” uang rakyat yang mengingatkan arti pentingnya efisiensi dalam pelaksanaan Pemilu yang akan datang.

Measuring performance of the public sector-problems and appraoches 

 

Social Policy Analysis:

Political Economy of Welfare 

—————————————–

* Klarifikasi anggota KPU hari ini (1 November 2007, sumber: detikcom) yang menekankan “penurunan” anggaran dari penyelenggaraan Pemilu tahun 2004 tak bisa dijadikan satu alasan besarnya bujet tahun 2009. Saya tak ingin terjebak dalam komodifikasi elit dalam melihat angka fantastis ini. Yang pasti, pencoretan mata anggaran “pencetakan dan distribusi kartu pemilih”, misalnya, tidak akan berpengaruh besar mengurangi angka fantastis.

Mari masuk ke situs KPU (http://www.kpu.go.id). Untuk halaman depannya saja dibutuhkan waktu lebih dari 5 menit. Di saat nyaris bersamaan, membuka situs go.id lain bahkan kurang dari 1 menit!

Dari hasil pencarian di situs KPU tersebut, dengan kata kunci “anggaran” tak ada satupun menjelaskan secara detail mata-mata anggaran 2009. Saya tadinya mengharapkan situs ini menjadi ajang transparansi anggaran bagi publik (sesuai dengan harapan anggota KPU I Gusti Putu Artha di detikcom hari ini). Sayangnya, anggota KPU lain Andi Nurpati hanya menyebutkan hal-hal kecil seperti pencoretan “kartu pemilih” tadi.

Apakah ada pengadaan alat berat, renovasi gedung, dan seterusnya (di luar anggaran mobil yang dicoret tahun ini). Adakah di tahun 2009 pengadaan mobil untuk pembaruan inventarisasi kendaraan, yang tentunya berasal dari uang rakyat itu?

Masalah ini tak kurang tak lebih adalah masalah transparansi anggaran. Ada beberapa pemikiran yang harus menjadi pertimbangan tim kecil pengkajian anggaran 2009 hingga anggota KPU itu sendiri. Konsep Good Corporate Governance di setiap aspek dan lapisan pekerjaan harus menjadi pegangan tetap KPU. Membuat skala prioritas yang terpercaya, lalu kemudian melaksanakan program kerja ini, serta terakhir memberikan laporan akuntabilitas menjadi satu paket transparansi anggaran. Laporan akuntabilitas ini sedang digarap di Kementerian Pendayagunaan Aparatur Negara Republik Indonesia, yang lengkap dengan kriteria dan bobot setiap program kerja.

Selain menyempurnakan metode pengambilan keputusan yang tersebut di atas, konsep “balance scorecard” juga digunakan dalam laporan akuntabilitas tersebut. Balance scorecard adalah “the activities of a company are meeting its objectives in terms of vision and strategy.”

Tidak sulit menciptakan keharmonisan antara permintaan anggaran, program kerja terskala, dengan laporan akuntabilitas kelak. Mari ciptakan arena demokrasi ini secara bijak, toh orang bijak juga taat anggaran.

Iklan
 
1 Komentar

Ditulis oleh pada Oktober 31, 2007 in economy, efisiensi, election, Indonesia, Jakarta, KPU, Pemilu 2009, public policy

 

Supporting Indonesia’s International Investment Summit 2007, JCC 5-7 November, Jakarta


 

Indonesia’s International Investment Summit 2007

Revitalizing The Energy and Mining Sectors

(click here for list of all speakers and agenda)

A big applaud and a wish for success for the committee who initiated another international event–and more likely on specific sectors like energy and mining. And here are some facts I quoted from Geographical World Reference, published by Periplus Editions (HK) Limited: “Coal, petroleum, and natural gas provide energy supplies, and in recent decades, uranium has provided the basis for nuclear energy… [T]he greatly increased use of minerals by the developed countries, and the increasing use by newly industrialized countries, has led to concerns about there being adequate mineral supplies for the future. Substitution of new materials for metals and the search for new or renewable energy sources–such as solar power or wind generation–are amongst the developments aimed at conserving our mineral resources.”

uranium is there

Two things I would like to hightlight beforehand: uranium and solar- or wind-generated energies. Global controversies around uranium (its waste and nuclear war weaponry issues arisen in North Korea or Afghanistan or Iran) has held up the potential alternative energy in Indonesia. On the other hand, solar- or wind-generated production is hurdled by lack of technology or innovation strategy–even if importing the technology is considered as one strategy. It is the unquestionable price that would make Indonesia pushed aside.

waste/dumped truck

Solar generator

T.J. Rodgers of SunPower aimed to develop large-scales solar farms in remote, sunny locations to compete with big fossil-fuel generators that sell electricity to utilities (Fortune, October 15, 2007). Unfortunately, Indonesia with always sun-powered areas and cheap labour would not pass the candidacy of areas Rodgers were looking for. Manila became one place to provide this.

What went wrong with this picture?

Brief analyze it, another institutional approach is considered. In summit or conference like the upcoming International Investment Summit 2007, policy makers in Jakarta sometimes leave the so-called “public utilities’ managers” in provinces or regencies. Local autonomy shall not be crossed out and left as jargon only. The overall success is about coordination of Jakarta and local authorities. A package of new laws, be it sector-specific or local autonomy, shall be enforced and implemented with good political will of both national or local authorities. Amending the old working contracts with third parties must also insert obligations for social and institutional welfare of overall Indonesia. The contracts’ transformation process shall be burdensome, yet in a transparent and reliable way, any investor would be more than happy to further the negotiations.

In addition to that, this summit and other investors’ events that highlight alternative energy must also give ways for local authorities to take a more active part. Great committee preparation shall include well arrangement of the related stakeholders from Aceh to Papua.

One last thought, just don’t leave Sulsel Summit, Jabar Summit, North Sumatera Summit or other local events go their own separate ways, leaving a chaotic room that would scare investors instantly. Inform the investors promptly, make them smile, and get them to know the field better. Yet, they must know that we are not selling a piece of land. It’s the richness above and below the land.

Jakarta, 30 October 2007

World Nuclear Reactors ( www.cameco.com)

2015

Operating 2006

New

Shutdown

Total Operating

GWe Change

Nuclear Electricity 2004* (%)

Argentina

2

1

0

3

0.7

8

Brazil

2

1

0

3

1.4

3

Canada

18

2

0

20

1.7

15

Mexico

2

0

0

2

0

5

US

103

4

0

107

4.7

20

China

9

18

0

27

17.4

2

India

15

15

0

30

9.0

3

Iran

0

2

0

2

2.0

0

Japan

54

10

1

63

13.3

29

Korea

20

8

0

28

9.6

38

Pakistan

2

2

0

4

0.6

2

Taiwan

6

2

0

8

2.7

21

Belgium

7

0

0

7

0

55

Czech Republic

6

0

0

6

0

31

Finland

4

1

0

5

1.6

27

France

59

1

1

59

1.4

78

Germany

17

0

0

17

0

32

Hungary

4

0

0

4

0

34

Lithuania

1

0

1

0

(1.3)

72

The Netherlands

1

0

0

1

0

4

Romania

1

2

0

3

1.4

10

Slovakia

6

2

2

6

0

55

Slovenia

1

0

0

1

0

38

Spain

9

0

1

8

(0.2)

23

Sweden

10

0

0

10

0

52

Switzerland

5

0

0

5

0

40

UK

23

0

8

15

(2.5)

19

Russia

31

6

0

37

5.8

16

Armenia

1

0

0

1

0

39

Bulgaria

4

2

2

4

1.1

42

Ukraine

15

1

0

16

1.0

51

South Africa

2

2

0

4

0.3

7

*Source: World Nuclear Association
 

To Mock A Media Merger


by Amelia Day

Media merger, especially free-to-air television, in Indonesia is pretty much impossible to remedy–if not considered painstakingly and unbearably possible. The calculation of divestiture, remedies to restrict vertical behaviour, and remedies to control outcomes cannot be executed if at the state executive level there are insignificant penalty power nor legal tools.

Even so, for a start, there are steps to overcome this deficiency. I am pretty much concerned about steps that a regulator shall consider. The principle concerns of, for instance, specifically in relation to divestiture remedies. The regulator needs to be clear about the constituents of the divestiture package and ensure that it is maintained until the divestiture is complete. It is also important that thorough assessment of potential purchasers, and the importance of including provision for sale of the package by divestiture trustees at no minimum price.

The cases of past mergers like Global TV/RCTI/TPI (under Media Citra Nusantara’s banner) and Trans TV and TV7 (under Trans Corp’s banner), or the upcoming SCTV and Indosiar (under Surya Citra Media’s banner), the polarization is pretty clear. To cover the legal base, all TV entities remain intact but the transaction goes up one level to their holding companies. This is also to blur the market power they tend to conceal.

For this kind of polarization, I am suggesting evidence-based approach to the development of policy and practice, a methodology based on case studies to use. There are possible ways like to allow meaningful research on their success but sufficiently recent to ensure that they were relevant; to cover a cross-section of different types of remedy and to be focused on those type of remedy most frequently used by KPPU; to include examples of remedies that were thought to have been successful and examples of remedies that were thought to have been unsuccessful; and to include examples of relatively straightforward cases and relatively complex cases.

KPPU must be invested heavily on the effort of the merger control. Today, cases like Temasek in telcos shall be considered further for media merger remedies. This is also to anticipate digital convergence (of platforms, services, devices, and industries). If there are horizontal or vertical or unilateral concerns taking place, the type of remedy shall include restricting behaviour to end-customers, restricting vertical behaviour, and controlling outcomes (price control). KPPU must also forward a detailed learning points, which are grouped thematically: interim remedies; choice and design of final remedies (divestitures and behavioural remedies); negotiation of final undertakings; and ongoing compliance and monitoring. Incentives and penalty for the parties involved in the merger or acquisition must be outlined and be informed to public.

The public participation must also be considered well due to the Indonesian Law of Rulemaking 2004 (UU 10/2004). With rigid and open procedure, KPPU shall also include the participation in a transparent and analytical way.

Last of all, the effectiveness of a remedy depends on action by a third party that is not subject to the remedy; there is a risk that the remedy will not be effective. To anticipate this, political will at the executive level shall be deemed and calculated.

 

The Price of Friendship


What is friendship? What is mental illness? They go hand in hand.

The stigma associated with mental illness is a big barrier to recovery. If we want to be a truly healthy society, we need to break down the stigma and treat mental illness like any other healthcare condition. It starts with you.

People with mental illness can recover or manage their conditions and go on to lead happy, healthy, productive lives. They contribute to society and make the world a better place. … One of the most important factors in recovery is the understanding and acceptance of friends.  (www.whatadifference.samhsa.gov)

This writing has nothing to do with otonomi daerah or public policy or such… but trust is the keyword of productivity among us.

http://www.snafugear.com

 
Tinggalkan komentar

Ditulis oleh pada Oktober 22, 2007 in friendship, public policy